Situated at nearly 6,000' altitude, Baguio has a cooler climate and the hillsides are
covered with pine trees. Kennon Road connects Baguio
southward to La Union
as an R&R
area in the mountains for the US Army and American staff, with the establishment
of Camp John Hay in 1903 outside town. The city was laid out with
Washington DC as its inspiration. Baguio became the
of the Philippines, with many wealthy families purchasing homes in the city.
Baguio was the first location bombed by the Japanese on
December 8, 1941, when Japanese aircraft hit Camp John Hay. The Japanese
Army's 9th Regiment coming from
Bauang occupied the city on December 24, 1941. The war
relatively peacefully, as there
guerrilla activities in the area, and few reprisals by the Japanese,
who occupied building in the town.
American Missions Against Baguio
January 23, 1945 - August 9, 1945
Battle For Baguio
After the American
landing at Lingayen Gulf, the town was subjected to air raids
January 1945 through
1945 in an effort to deprive the Japanese of the city. General Yamashita moved his headquarters to Baguio and the area was defended by the Japanese
Army's 19th Division "Tora".
The Japanese Army 10th Tank Regiment, 5th Company defended the city with a meager force of 3 medium and 2 light tanks, and were ordered to carry out suicide attacks with their tanks. On the road to the city, one Type 97 and one Type 95 had two explosives attacked to the front of the hull. They hid into a bamboo bush near the road between Baguio and Sablan where American tanks would advance. When a column of M4 Sherman tanks turned the corner about 100m far from them, they dashed forward to attack the column. The leading tank of the column was surprised at them and tried to go back, but it failed to turn and fell into a valley along the road. Japanese tanks clashed with enemy tanks and four tanks (two Shermans and two Japanese tanks) were destroyed. The Japanese who survived jumped out of their tank and attacked the enemy, brandishing a sword. After this incident, Americans hesitantly advanced. Finally, on April
27, 1945 US force from the 33rd, 37th and USAFFE-NL 66th Infantry
Regiment liberated the town.
Until the end of the war, Japanese resistance persisted
to the west and north of Baguio. Japanese forces officially surrendered
in Baguio on September 3, 1945 present were Lt. General Jonathan
M. Wainwright and Lt. General Wilhelm D. Styer.
Cathedral (Our Lady of the Atonement)
Costructed between 1920 and was completed in 1936 by missionaries from Belgium atop Kampo Hill (renamed
Mary"), the tallest hill in Baguio. During 1945, the cathedral was used as a shelter for civilians during
the American bombing of Baguio, and an evacuation center. Many
residents built shanty shacks around the cathedral, after it
was filled to
capacity. During April, 1945 advance units of the US Army arrived at the Cathedral and liberated the town.
Park at the center of Baguio. The US Army held a formal ceremony here in April
1945 after the liberation of Baguio attended by General Swift (I Corps commander). After liberation, L-4 Piper Cubs landed on the park.
Henry T. Allen (Camp Allen)
Prewar US Army camp in Baguio.
A memorial park and obelisk is located
on the western edge of town, with dedications in Japanese and English.
Park & Wall of Honor
Dedicated in 1991 and upgraded in
1995, this small memorial park and Wall of Honor lists the names
of the 3,347
of the 66th Infantry Regiment USAFFE. The memorial lists 854
casualties (280 KIA, 568 WIA, 6 MIA) in the campaign in the mountains. At the front of the memorial, a US Army 105mm howitzer is on display.
Camp John Hay
US Army camp was established in 1903, and encompassed over a
thousand acres. Includes the Baguio Country Club, US Ambassador's Residence, Loakan Airfield (Baguio Airport) and the Philippine Military Academy (PMA) at Fort Gegorio del Pilar).
Located to the south-east of Baguio, prewar built for mining activities
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December 8, 2012