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Bougainville Island is located in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville (Bougainville Province) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Also known as simply Bougainville. The province encompasses Bougainville Island plus surrounding islands and atolls. To the north is Buka Passage, Buka Island and Sohano Island. To the south is the international border with the Solomon Islands and Western Province.
In 1885, claimed as part of the German Solomon Islands Protectorate (German Solomon Islands) administered through Deutsch Neu Guinea (German New Guinea). In December 1914 occupied by the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (AN&MEF). In 1919 Bougainville formally became part of the Territory of New Guinea and German nationals were deported and property seized. During the Pacific War, part of the Territory of New Guinea and considered part of the North Solomons (Northern Solomons). During 1975 became Bougainville Province in Papua New Guinea (PNG). On June 25, 2002 became the Autonomous Region of Bougainville (AROB). On December 7, 2019 the population voted for independence.
During the colonial era, the coastal areas of Bougainville were planted with coconut palms harvesting copra. The Catholic church established missions at several locations on Bougainville. The German administration developed coconut palm plantations harvesting copra.
During early 1942 Japanese forces landed on Bougainville and developed the island into a base area. Long term occupation plans included resettling Japanese civilians to a planned settlement "Little Tokyo". On November 1, 1943 American forces landed at Torokina on the western coast, Relieved by the Australian Army, fighting continued until the official surrender of Japan on September 2, 1945. Of the 80,000 Japanese troops, only 23,000 survived to be taken prisoner. About 20,000 were KIA and 37,000 died in the jungle from disease and starvation.
Japanese Army Lieutenant General Masatane Kanda commander 17th Army was kept waiting by his superiors at Rabaul until September 7, 1945 when authorized to surrender and the next day departed for Torokina to surrender to Australian Army Lt General Stanley G. Savige, commander 2 Corps.
After 1988-1992 "Bougainville Crisis" Bougainville Province was renamed Autonomous Region of Bougainville but remains part of Papua New Guinea (PNG). To the north borders New Ireland Province and to the northwest New Britain Province. To the south is the international border with Solomon Islands and Western Province.
Northern Bougainville District
Selau Suir Rurial LLG
Bonis located at the northern tip of Bougainville with Bonis Airfield borders Buka Passage.
Ruri (Ruri Bay) borders the northeastern corner of Bougainville.
Tinputz Rural LLG
Tinputz located at the northeast corner of Bougainville borders Tinputz Harbor.
Teop Island located off the coast of Bougainville
Kunua Rural LLG
Sohano Island located in the Buka Passage between Buka Island and Bougainville.
Kunua (Sarime, Konua) inland village near the northwest coast of Bougainville.
Tarlena located in northwestern Bougainville Island.
Chabai located in northwestern Bougainville includes Chabai Airfield.
Porton located in northwestern Bougainville, Australian amphibious landing repulsed.
Taiof Island (Toiokh) located off the northwest corner of Bougainville south of Buka Island.
Soraken located on the Soraken peninsula in northwestern Bougainville.
Central Bougainville District
Tenakau (Tenakai) located on the eastern coast of Bougainville includes Tenakau Airfield.
Numu Numu (Numanuma) located on the eastern coast of Bougainville start of the Numa Numa Trail.
Ibu located on the center of Bougainville.
Selan located on the western coastal road of Bougainville with Japanese tank.
Arawa located on the eastern coast of Bougainville, Peace Memorial.
Kieta located on the western coast, site of initial Japanese landing on Bougainville.
Kieta Harbor located on the western coast bordering Kieta.
Wakunai located on the northeast coast of Bougainville.
South Bougainville District
Torokina Rural LLG
Empress Augusta Bay borders the western coast of Bougainville, site of U.S. landing.
Atsinima Bay located on the west coast of Bougainville north of Empress Augusta Bay.
Torokina (Torokina) village located on western coast Bougainville, site of U.S. landing and Torokina Airfield.
Cape Torokina (Torokina Point) located on western coast Bougainville, site of U.S. landing and Torokina Airfield.
Torokina Island located in Empress Augusta Bay.
Puruata Island located in Empress Augusta Bay.
Magine Islands pair of islands at the northern edge of Empress Augusta Bay.
Gazelle Harbor located at the southern end of Empress Augusta Bay.
Mutupina Point located at the southern end of Empress Augusta Bay.
Piva located inland from the western coast, developed into Piva Airfield (Piva Yoke and Piva Uncle).
Toko coastal village used as Australian Army staging point against Japanese in southwestern Bougainville.
Koiari (Koiare, Koari, Koiaris) borders Empress Augusta Bay on the west coast of Bougainville.
Mawaraka (Mawareka, Mawataka) located on the southwest coast of Bougainville.
Mount Bagana active volcano located at the center of Bougainville.
Mount Billy Mitchell (Eruovi) volcano with crater lake known as Billy Mitchell Lake at the center of Bougainville.
Bana Rural LLG
Boku inland village.
Siwai Rural LLG
Siwai inland village with four tanks abandoned at this location.
Buin Rural LLG
Mamagata located on the southwestern coast of Bougainville.
Kangu located on the southern coast of Bougainville.
Kangu Hill (Mount Buin) high ground to the north of Kangu.
Malabeta Hill (Malabita) located on the southern coast of Bougainville inland from Kangu.
Buin (Buin Town) located on southern Bougainville.
Lamuai located on southern Bougainville between Kangu Beach and Kahili (Buin)
Kahili (Kihili, Kahilli, Buin) located on the southern coast of Bougainville includes Kahili Airfield (Buin Airfield).
Tonolei Harbor (Tonolai) borders Kahili on southern Bougainville.
Konga inland village located in southern Bougainville.
Tonu inland village located in southern Bougainville.
Kara located to the north of Buin, includes Kara Airfield.
Aitara located on the southwest coast of Bougainville.
Muguai located to the east of Kara.
Mutupina Point (Motupena) loctated on southern Bougainville.
Mosigetta located on southern Bougainville.
Harinai located on southern Bougainville.
Monoitu (Monitu) prewar Catholic mission, Japanese occupied until June 1945.
Moila Point located on southwest coast of Bougainville.
Aku inland village in southern Bougainville.
Olava located on East Point (East Cape) at the southeast corner of Bougainville.
Erventa Harbor (Buin Harbor) located on the souther coast of Bougainville between Kangua and Buin.
Moisuru located on the southern coast of Bougainville
Moisuru Bay located on the southern coast of Bougainville at Moisuru
Buin Rural LLG Offshore Islands
Erventa Island small island off southern Bougainville.
Popotala Island small island off southern Bougainville.
Ratan Island small island off southern Bougainville.
Ovau Island small island off southern Bougainville.
Taurato Island (Tuarato Island) small island off southeastern Bougainville.
Alasina Island small island off southeastern Bougainville
Sand Island small island located to the south of Tonolei Harbor.
Antarara Island small island off southwest Bougainville.
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