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Lat 30° 34' 60N Long 114° 16' 0E Wuhan 武汉 is located at an elevation of 82' / 24m along the Yangtze River and Han River in Hubei Province in China. During 1927 Wuhan was formed by merging of the three districts of Wuchang, Hankow (Hankou), and Hanyang. Today, Wuhan is the provincial capital and largest city in Hubei Province in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
During January 1927, Wang Jing Wei, who led the Kuomintang leftist allies, occupied Wuhan with the support of Soviet agent Mikhail Borodin and declared the National Government had moved the capital to Wuhan dubbed the "Capital District" until August 19, 1927.
Second Sino-Japanese War
During the Second Sino-Japanese War, after the Japanese occupation of Nanking in December 1937, Wuhan became the provisional capital of Republic of China. During early 1938, the Wuhan area was targeted by Japanese bombers and fighters.
Battle of Wuhan (Defense of Wuhan)
The Battle of Wuhan (Capture of Wuhan) between June 11, 1938 until October 27, 1938 was largest, longest and most significant battle in the early stages of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Known to the Chinese as the Defense of Wuhan. During the battle, Chinese forces were under the direct command of Chiang Kai-shek with support from a Soviet volunteer group of pilots. The battle resulted in high casualties on both sides but ended with Japanese victory and capture of Wuhan.
World War II
Afterwards, Wuhan was occupied by the Japanese for the remainder of the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. During the Japanese occupation, Wuhan was developed into a major logistical base to support operations against southern China. On December 18, 1944 U. S. Army Air Force (USAAF) 14th Air Force (14th AF) bombers and fighters attack the Wuhan area causing a firestorm that destroyed much of the city. An estimated 10,000 to 20,000 people died over the next three days. On September 2, 1945 after the surrender of Japan returned to Chinese control.
Administratively, Wuchang and Hanyang were initially combined into a new city of Wuchang. in October 1946 were separated into Wuchang and the county of Hanyang. In August 1947, Hankow (Hankou) became a centrally controlled municipality. The Wuhan Forward Headquarters was established in Wuhan led by Nationalist General Bai Chongxi. On May 15, 1949 during the Chinese Civil War, the Nationalist forces withdrew from Wuhan. On May 16, 1949 in the afternoon, the Communist People's Liberation Army occupied Wuhan.
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