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    Malaysia (Malayan States)  
Prewar, Malaysia was a British colony known as the Malayan States or Malaya and included Singapore. In 1957 became independent as the Federation of Malaya. On August 31, 1957 became independent as Malaysia. On August 9, 1965 Singapore became independent country. Today, Malaysia is divided into two regions: Peninsular Malaysia on the Malayan Peninsula and East Malaysia (Malaysian Borneo) on the northwest portion of Borneo with thirteen states and three federal territories. Borders Singapore to the south, Thailand to the north and the South China Sea to the east. Borders Thailand to the north and the South China Sea to the east. To the west of the Malayan Peninsula is Penang Island.

Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia)
Negeri Sembilan State  located on the western coast of the Malayan Peninsula.
Pahang State  located on the western coast of Malayan Peninsula.
Penang State (Pulau Pinang)  includes Penang Island off the western coast of the Malay Peninsula.
Johor State (Johore)  located at the center of the Malayan Peninsula.
Kelantan State  located on the eastern coast of the Malayan Peninsula includes Kota Bharu.
Perak State  located on the western central side of the Malayan Peninsula, includes Lenggong.
Kedah State  located on the western central side of the Malayan Peninsula, includes Sungei Patani and Alor Setar.
Selangor State  located on the western central side of the Malayan Peninsula.
Malacca State (Melaka)  located on the western central side of the Malayan Peninsula borders Strait of Malacca.
Perlis State  located at the northern to of Malaysia bordering Thailand.
Terengganu State  located on the eastern coast of the Malayan Peninsula.

Malaysia Borneo (East Malaysia)
Sarawak State  located on the northern coast of Borneo includes Kuching, Miri and Bintulu.
Sabah State  located on the northeastern coast of Borneo includes Kudat, Jesselton, Labuan Island.

Federal Territories
Kuala Lumpur  capital of Malaysia.
Putrajaya  located on the western coast of the Malaysian Peninsula.
Labuan Island  located to the northwest of Borneo.

Wartime History
On December 8, 1941 after 12:25am (local time) Japanese forces landed at Kota Bharu. Due to the time difference and international dateline, this landing was one and a half hours prior to December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and Oahu in Hawaii.

In retaliation, the British "Force Z" commanded by Rear Admiral Sir Tomas Phillips battleship HMS Prince of Whales and battle cruiser HMS Repulse with four Destroyers set out from Singapore to attack the Japanese expected to land on Malaysia. Sited the next day by Japanese submarine I-65. 'Z Force' made an aborted attempt to thwart a report of a Japanese landing at Kuantan that proved to be false. Land based Navy bombers took off from Saigon including 24 G3M Nells from Genzan Kōkūtai, 33 G4M Nells from Mihoro Kokutai and 26 G4M1 Bettys from Kanoya Kokutai armed with torpedoes.

By December 9 1941, with an additional reinforcement troops, the Japanese moved into Kota Bharu town after occupying the Pengkalan Chepa airport a day earlier. The British continued their withdrawal to Kuala Krai and then to Terengganu. By December 22, 1941, the Japanese completely occupied Kelantan.

During the Japanese occupation of Malaysia, life was difficult. Due to scarcity, black markets emerged to acquire necessities at inflated prices. The currency notes issued by Japanese became worthless due to escalating rate of inflation. The notes became popular known as "banana money" because of the banana tree on the ten cent note.

During July 1943, Japanese Prime Minister Hikeki Tojo announced that the Northern Malay States including Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah and Perlis be surrendered to Thailand as part of a December 1941 agreement between Japan and the Thailand. On October 18, 1943 these areas were placed under the administration of the Thai Government.

After the British returned to Malaya in 1945, they destroyed memorial markers installed by Japanese to commemorate fallen comrades.

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Last Updated
December 12, 2023


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