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    Manchuria (Empire of Manchukuo)  China
TASS August 1945
The Empire of Manchukuo was located in Manchuria in northern China bordering Russia to the north, Mongolia to the west and the Korean Peninsula to the south. Between 1932–1945 known as Empire of (Great) Manchuria (大)滿洲帝國. Today part of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Wartime History
After the Russo-Japanese War, in 1919 the Kwantung Army was created as an independent Army group of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) based at Port Arthur to protect the Liaodong Peninsula and South Manchurian railroad. After the September 8, 1931 Mukden Incident (Manchurian Incident), Japan occupied all of Manchuria and established the Empire of Manchukuo as a puppet state of Japan. The Japanese developed infrastructure and factories to extract natural resources. Manchuria was defended by the Kwantung Army 関東軍 the largest army group of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA).

During the 1930s, border incidents and undeclared wars happened along the poorly defined western border including the Battle of Khalkhin Gol / Nomonhan Incident that started in May 1939 and developed into a large undeclared border war until a cease fire went into effect on September 16, 1939. Afterwards, the border remained as the Soviet Union and Mongolia claimed it.

On August 9, 1945 after midnight, the Soviet Union launched "Operation August Storm" attacking Manchuria on three fronts including the Khingan–Mukden Offensive Operation (Lesser Khingan-Mukden), the Harbin–Kirin Offensive Operation (Harbin-Kirin) and Sungari Offensive Operation. On September 2, 1945 Japan officially surrendered with Soviet forces controlling most of Manchuria.

At the end of World War II, the Soviet Union handed Inner Mongolia over to China in accordance with the Yalta Treaty. Chinese Communists armed with Japanese weapons and aircraft resumed attacks on Chinese Nationalist forces. With Soviet support, they were reequipped with Russian equipment. By 1947, Chinese Communists gained control of Manchuria and Inner Mongolian and with support from the USSR established the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region that later became part of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

The China provinces that encompass the former area of Manchukuo include: Shanxi Province, Shaanxi Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Gansu Province.

Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (Inner Mongolia, Nei Mongol)
Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (NMAR)  located in northern China bordering Mongolia.
Heilongjiang Province  northwestern province bordering Mongolia and Russia
Hulunbuir Province (Hsingan, Xing'an)  western province bordering Mongolia and Russia
People's Republic of China
Jilin Province (Kirin)  located in the northeastern part of China
Liaoning Province  located in the northeastern part of China includes Mukden (Shenyang) and Dairen
Hebei Province  located in southwestern Manchuria includes Jehol and Linsi

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Last Updated
July 27, 2023



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