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Lat 49° 11' Long 119° 43' E Hailar is located in western Manchuria in northern China. Also spelled "Hailaerh" or "Khailar" and today spelled "Haila'er". In Russian spelled "Haylar". To the north is the Hailar River. To the east is Kulun Nor. To the west is the border with Mongolia. Between 1932–1945 located in the Empire of Manchukuo. Today Haila'er is located in the Hailar District of Hulunbuir Province in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (Nei Mongol, NMAR) in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
By 1916, a rail road line westward to Manchouli and eastward to Poketu and Tsitsihar. In early 1939, an unimproved sand and grass road spanned from Hailar to Chianghunmiao. This road was used as a supply route by the Japanese Kwantung Army during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol / Nomonhan Incident during May-September 1939.
After the 1931 Manchurian Incident, Japanese forces occupied Hailar and Manchouli on December 5, 1932 as part of their occupation of all of Manchuria the establishment of the Empire of Manchukuo defended by the Japanese Kwantung Army.
During 1935, the Japanese 13th Cavalry Group commanded by Lt. General Shigeru was based at Hailar. On January 27, 1935 a force from this group deployed troops to Halhamiao (Khalkhin-sume).
During 1938, headquarters of the Japanese Kwantung Army 23rd Division and 8th Border Guards Unit (8th BGU). Also, the Manchukuaon Army's Hsingan Division and Hsingan Cavalry Division comprised of four regiments.
On May 12, 1939, Mongolians crossed the Khalkhin Gol west of Nomonhan an area the Japanese claimed as the border with Mongolia. In response, the 23rd Division "Azuma Detachment" requisitioned all motor vehicles in Hailar and used the road unimproved sand and grass road from Hailar to Chianghunmiao to reach Nomonhan. Between May 1939 to September 1939 this road was used by the Japanese as a logistical route by the Kwantung Army to support the Battle of Khalkhin Gol / Nomonhan Incident.
6th Army headquarters commanded by General Ogisu was based at Hailar until August 23, when it moved forward to Lake Mohorehi and returned on October 28, after the ceasefire and battlefield cleanup.
After the battle during September 1942, a Japanese monument to war dead was dedicated at Hailar to the memory of 10,391 Kwantung Army soldiers who had died in Manchuria in the Mukden Incident and Nomonhan where 9,471 Japanese and 202 Manchurians dead at Nomonhan.
Unit 543 operated by Kempeitai (military police) based at Hailar developed biological weapons.
On August 9, 1945 after midnight, the Soviet Union launched "Operation August Storm" attacking Manchuria on three fronts including the Harbin–Kirin Offensive Operation. During the assault, Harbin was one of the main objectives with Soviet forces reaching the city on August 11, 1945. Defending, roughly 3,827 Japanese continued to defend from heavily fortified defenses, trenches and pillboxes untol surrendering on August 18, 1945.
Hailar Airfield (Haylar)
Prewar airfield used by Manchukuoan and JAAF
Nomonhan Japanese-Soviet Tactical Combat, 1939 (1981) pages 24, 27
Nomonhan (1990) pages 150, 690, 914
Political Situation Prior To Outbreak of War, Part I page 6
Japanese Studies on Manchuria: Volume XI Part 2, pages 14-15, 17, 19, 49 & 51 (maps)
Japanese Studies on Manchuria: Volume XI Part 3, pages 182-183, 215
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