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US Army January 9, 1945
Carl R. Thien 1945
Justin Taylan 2003
Lingayen Gulf is located in northern Luzon in the Philippines. The northern edge connects to the South China Sea (West Philippine Sea). Borders Pangasinan Province to the south and west, and La Union Province to the east. Bordering the southern edge is Sual, Lingayen, Dagupan, San Fabian in the 4th District of Pangasinan Province. Bordering the eastern edge is Santo Tomas, Agoo, Vaba, Santiago and Bauang.
During World War II, Lingayen Gulf was the site of amphibious landings by both the Japanese Army on December 22, 1941 and later the liberation U. S. Army on January 9, 1945.
On December 22, 1941 the Japanese Army 14th Army under the command of General Masaharu Homma landed on the eastern side of Lingayen Gulf at Agoo, Vaba, Santiago and Bauang.
During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, Lingayen Gulf was used by Japanese shipping and defenses were established in anticipation that U. S. forces would land at the same location. Starting in late December 1944, Lingayen Gulf was targeted by American aircraft ahead of the planned landing.
American mission against Lingayen Gulf
December 28, 1944–January 8, 1945
During early January 1945 an Allied amphibious force entered Lingayen Gulf and began mine sweeping operations and shore bombardment ahead of the amphibious landing. Between January 4, 1945 to January 12, 1945 a total of 24 ships were sunk by Japanese kamikaze aircraft including USS Long DD-209 and USS Hovey (DD-208 / DMS-11). In addition, 67 were damaged including USS Mississippi (BB-41), USS Colombia (CL-56), HMAS Australia a (D84) and USS Colorado (BB-45) was hit by friendly fire.
On January 9, 1945 an Allied amphibious force landed the U.S. Army 6th Army land along a 20 mile beachhead with XIV Corps landing to the west on "Orange Beach" at Lingayen and "Blue Beach" at Dagupan while I Corps landed to the east on "White Beach" at San Fabian. During the initial landing, 68,000 troops are landed. A total of 203,608 went ashore in the subsequent landings. In total, General Douglas MacArthur commanded of over 280,000 men, greater than the force commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower in Europe.
Afterwards, Lingayen Gulf became an important Allied anchorage and logistical area to support the U. S. Army advance southward.
P-38L Lightning 44-25455
January 9-17, 1945
Map Lingayen Area 1945
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