US Army January 1943
US Army c1944
Lat 8° 40' 0S Long 148° 24' 0E Buna is located on the north coast of New Guinea. Prewar and during the Pacific War located in the Northern District (Northern Province) of Territory of Papua. Today located in Oro Bay RuralLLC in Ijivitari District of Oro Province in Papua New Guinea.
Buna was the site of the Austalian Government headquarters known as
During middle July 1942, Japanese seaplanes attacked
Buna. Account by Allan Champion, Resident Magistrate. During the night of July 21-22, 1942 Japanese forces that landed at Gona occupied Buna and advanced
to Popondetta westward to Kokoda then across the Kokoda Trail in the to the Owen Stanley Range. The Japanese code named the Buna area "ONF".
On August 14, 1942 a group of civilian missionaries turned over to the Japanese at Embi were interrogated and transported by truck to Buna. On the beach at Buna, a group of Sasebo No. 5 Special Navy Landing Party (SNLF) commanded by Tsukioka Torashigo executed a group of civilian prisoners. Each was beheaded by company commander Sub. Lt. Komai. The group included: Miss, Brenchley, Miss Lashmar, Mr. Duffill, Mr. Anthony Gore, his son and wife Mrs. Gore (incorrectly noted as Louis Artango). Afterwards, their bodies were never recovered and were possibly thrown into the sea. Possibly, Captain Austin and Father Holland were also present in this group, or were killed elsewhere or earlier.
On August 18, 1942 Japanese Army General Horii arrived at Buna. After the Japanese advance was hauled, Australian forces began advancing towards the north coast with the objective of capturing Buna. Meanwhile, Japanese forces worked to build extensive fortifications in the Buna area including coconut log bunkers, trenches and sniper positions. By late 1942, roughly 9,000 Japanese defended the area spanning from Buna to Gona. The Buna area was defended by approximately 2,000 troops including fresh reinforcements
from the 144th Infantry Regiment and 229th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Battalion under the command of Col.
July 23, 1942–January 23, 1943
After advancing towards the coast, Australian Army and U.S. Army forces attacked Buna village on November 16, 1942, but
little gains were made. More reinforcements were sent forward and
but only small gains were made. By December
14, 1942 the Japanese abandoned Buna village and were occupying
positions to the east at nearby Jiropa.
Meanwhile, a total of 3,000 Australian Army troops from the 18th Australian
Brigade, under the command of Brigadier Wootten, plus a squadron of the
2/6th Australian Armoured Regiment equipped with M3
Stuart tanks were brought forward to Buna
along with 9,000 soldiers from the U. S. Army 32nd
On December 18, 1942 at 7:00am on Cape Endaiadere, the Australian Army 2/9th Battalion, supported by seven
tanks attacked towards Cape Endaiadere
with the Americans on their left in support advanced
north through the Americans, on a front of approximately 600 yards and with
the sea on their right. However, the left company, attacking
without tanks lost more than half its eighty-seven men in
an advance of only about 100 yards and was pinned down. The
attack did not resume
until after the arrival of three tanks in the afternoon.
The battalion lost 171 officers and men, about half the
strength of the attacking
companies. Two tanks were disabled on the battlefield.
On December 20, 1942 at 7am, the 2/9th Battalion reinforced by a company
of the 2/10th Battalion on the right with an American battalion on
the left continued the advance towards the coconut plantation. With air support and four M3 Stuart tanks spaced
among the Australian infantry they moved through the coconut plantation
without great opposition and by 10:00 am were advancing into the bush
and kunai grass clothing the marshy country beyond the plantation.
The tanks bogged down and were only able to travel along the beach. The
attackers came under heavy mortar and machine-gun fire. The advance
ended on the general line along the Simemi Creek.
On December 24, 1942 during the battle, 1st Sgt Elmer J. Burr deliberately threw himself atop an enemy grenade that landed near his company commander to smother the blast and was killed. Later, he earned the Medal of Honor. That same day, a platoon from Company L attempted to reach the beach to split the enemy's defensive positions. After neutralizing a pillbox single handedly and leading the assault on a second pillbox, Sgt Kenneth E. Gruennert was shot by a sniper and later earned the Medal of Honor.
On January 1, 1943 the Allies succeeded in breaking through
the defenses and captured Buna two days later. During the ferocious fighting, only six Japanese were taken prisoners, the rest were killed or died.
In total, 1,400 Japanese were buried at Buna, The fighting on
the beachheads cost 1,500 Australians, 670 Americans and an
estimated 4,000 Japanese dead. The U. S. Army
32nd Division sustained 1,954 casualties; 466 killed and 1508 wounded.
In sixteen days the 18th Brigade suffered casualties of 55 officers and 808
men, including 22 officers and 284 others killed.
Stuart Tank Hull Number 2300
Engine compartment destroyed by magnetic
recovered for the PNG
Stuart Tank Hull Number
Disabled near Cape Endaiadere, recovered
for the Australian War Memorial 1973
Pilot Sayer, shot down September 23, 1942
DB-7B Mark IIIA "Retribution" Serial
Pilot McDonald, crashed November 26, 1942
My Brother Vivian pages 53, 139-146
NAA "A Report by Sir William Webb on Japanese Atrocities. Depositions re Japanese Atrocities - 1943" J1889, BL43985/13
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October 23, 2019