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IJA January 1942
5th AF November 2, 1943
RNZAF September 1945
Lat 4° 12' 0S Long 152° 10' 60E Rabaul is located on the Gazelle Peninsula at the northeastern tip of New Britain Island. Borders Simpson Harbor and Sulpher Creek and Lakuani Airfield to the south and Matupi Island to the southeast. In the Tolia language, Rabaul means mangrove, which grew in the area before the arrival of Europeans.
Between 1884 until September 1914 part of Deutsch Neu Guinea (German New Guinea). Prewar and during the Pacific War part of the New Britain District in the Territory of New Guinea. Today located in East New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG).
Rabaul was built by the German administration on reclaimed mangrove swamp land. The town was established in the early 1900s as the colonial capital of Deutsch Neu Guinea (German New Guinea).
World War I
At the start of World War I, the governor was Dr. Eduard Haber. On September 11, 1914, the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (AN&MEF) arrived off and landed forces at Herbertshöhe (Kokopo) and captured the German radio station at Bitapaka. After the war, the League of Nations mandated it to the Australia. During 1937, heavily damaged by a volcanic eruption when Vulcan and Tavurvur exploded.
World War II
On January 4, 1942 Japanese flying boats first bombed Rabaul. On January 20, 1942 a Japanese aircraft carriers including Akagi, Kaga, Shokaku and Zuikaku under the command of Admiral Nagumo launched carrier planes to attack Rabaul. On January 22, 1942 the Japanese launched another carrier plane strike but found no targets and preformed aerobatics before departing while the Japanese invasion force approached from St. Georges Channel.
On January 23, 1942 after midnight, the Japanese Army the 144th Infantry Regiment "South Seas Detachment" landed at several locations: Raluana Point and to the west of Kokopo and Kerawun and north of Vulcan. Also Malaguna, west of Praed Point and Nordup. Opposing them were the outnumbered Australian Army 2/22nd Battalion and New Guinea Volunteer Rifles (NGVR) opposed. By morning, the Japanese occupied Rabaul.
Developed into a massive base and Army and Navy Headquarters in the South Pacific. The Navy controlled the eastern half of the town, with their HQ at the New Guinea Club building. The 8th Army HQ at Four Corners (Four Ways). The Japanese expanded the two existing airfields and built four additional airfield in the Rabaul area. Several locations were used as seaplane anchorages. At the peak of their occupation, 97,000 Japanese were stationed in Rabaul and the vicinity, in addition to Allied POW's, slave laborers and roughly 3,000 "comfort woman" (military prostitutes) from Japan and Korea.
Reportedly, 367 anti-aircraft weapons defended Rabaul (192 Army, 175 Navy) by late 1942. The harbor area was defended by an estimated 43 coastal guns and 20 searchlights according to the US Strategic Bombing Survey. Rabaul was the most heavily defended target in the South-West Pacific Area (SWPA).
On February 20, 1944 the Japanese decided to withdrawal all flyable combat aircraft from Rabaul to Truk. Roughly 30 Zeros, 6 Bettys, 8 Vals, 10 Judys and 5 or 6 Kates were successfully withdrawn by the end of the month. This effectively the end of the air war over Rabaul. Only about 30 damaged or grounded Japanese remained at Rabaul area airfields and later in the war a few were repaired to fly by the Japanese and continued very limited operations.
Bypassed by the Allies, Rabaul remained in Japanese hands for the duration of the war and was subject to almost daily air raids, left to "wither on a vine" until the Japanese surrender. In total, American aircraft dropped 20,000 tons of bombs on the town and vicinity.
Allied missions against Rabaul
January 4, 1942–June 21, 1945
By 1945 conditions for the Japanese deteriorated once Rabaul was was cut off from resupply. The garrison commandeered food from the natives and was forced to undertake large scale gardening to grow enough food. The Japanese at Rabaul officially surrendered in September 1945 to Australian forces.
On September 6, 1945 the Japanese surrendered all remaining Japanese Forces in New Guinea, New Britain and the Solomon Islands. The ceremony took place aboard HMS Glory. Representing the Japanese was Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) General Hitoshi Imamura, Commander 8th Army Area and Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) Vice Admiral Jinichi Kusaka, Commander South East Area Fleet. On September 10, 1945 Australian Army soldiers arrived to occupy Rabaul.
At the end of the war, it took two years to repatriate all Japanese Prisoners Of War (POWs) back to Japan. At Rabaul was a war criminal trail by the United Military Law Office (Allies) with some Japanese sentenced to death by hanging on August 7, 1947. Others found guilty were sentences to hard labor in the area. By the early 1950s all remaining prisoners were transported to Japan to serve out their sentences.
On October 22, 1956 Japanese salvage companies Okadigumi Salvage Co. and Nayo Boeki Kaisha were given permission to salvage shipwrecks around Rabaul. During 1957-1958 salvaging shipwrecks including Naruto (Japanese Tanker No. 5301) that was loaded with scrap metal and then towed to Singapore and scrapped.
During 1994, Rabaul was devastated and largely destroyed by a volcanic eruption that covered most of the town in ash. Since the eruption, Kokopo developed as the new economic center of town with shops and amenities. Slowly, life and commerce along the harbor and Rabaul area has returned to normal. Today, most of the town is dug but many areas, particularly the southern portion nearest to Tavurvur remain changed by ash and have never been repaired.
German Residence at Rabaul (Governor's Residence)
Built prewar by the Germans as the residence for the Governor of Deutsch Neu Guinea (German New Guinea).
New Guinea Club (Rabaul)
Prewar social club located in Rabaul that survived the Pacific War.
Anti-Aircraft and Search Light Command Bunker
Japanese built bunker also known incorrectly as the "Yamamoto Bunker" or "The Admiral's Bunker".
Rabaul Prisoner Compound (Rabaul POW Prison)
Prewar taylor shop used by Japanese Army 6th Kempeitai to detain Allied Prisoners Of War (POWs) until 1944.
Keibitai Headquarters at Rabaul (Naval Guard POW Camp, Navy POW Camp)
Located in the prewar W. R. Carpenters building on Malaguna Road detained Allied Prisoners Of War (POWs).
Tunnel Hill (Tunnel Hill Road)
Connects Rabaul to Talili Bay on the north coast. During March 1944 a tunnel was used to detain Allied POWs.
Observatory Ridge (Volcano Observatory)
Located on a ridge overlooking Rabaul, Simpson Harbor and the volcanoes that surround the area.
Malaguna Road is the main east-west road spanning Rabaul. At the western end connects to Tunnel Hill Road and to the Kokopo-Rabaul Road southward Kokopo.
Mango Avenue is a main north-south road in eastern Rabaul. At the northern end connects to Malaguna Road. At the southern end connects to Namanula Road.
The Chinatown area of Rabaul was located in the eastern end of town. During the early stages of the Japanese occupation, Japanese Army "comfort woman" (prostitutes for soldiers) were housed in this area. During early 1944, the Chinatown area was destroyed by Allied bombing as most buildings were wooden. In 1994 covered in ash and largely destroyed and never rebuilt.
As the war turned against the Japanese, and Rabaul area was subjected to daily bombing raids, the Japanese constructed extensive networks of tunnels into the pumice ridges around Rabaul to use as hospitals, gun emplacements, storage areas, bunkers, barracks and headquarters. The Japanese oversaw the construction and utilized laborers including prisoners of war to dig the tunnels. By November 1944, the Japanese Navy had dug 70km of tunnels and the Japanese Army 80km. By the end of the war, it was estimated these lengths doubled. Another estimate of all the Japanese tunnels dug into the entire Gazelle peninsula area as measuring roughly 500km in collective length.
Army General Iwao Matsuda's HQ included a four post bed, luxury bath, personal prayer room, air raid shelter, cans of coca-cola, Philippine beer and expensive imported food. Meanwhile, his troops were sick, starving and dying. Post war, Japanese POW labor was used to empty out most known tunnels, especially to collect and dispose of munitions. Occasionally, a tunnel is discovered or a landslide reveals others and untouched caches of arms or equipment are found.
Installed during February or March 1943, this radar had a range of 150km to provide an early warning system for Rabaul's defenses and worked in tandem with other radar and observers stationed on souther New Ireland and Bougainville.
Located to the north of Rabaul town in tunnels the Japanese installed Fuso electric generators. Postwar, the Japanese generators remained in use until at least 1952 operated by Ernie Smith.
Post war, a wooden gallows and steps were built by the the main water tank at the Malaguna Vocational Center. On August 7, 1947 at 8:00am convicted Japanese war criminals were hang including Lieutenant General Masao Baba who was found guilty for his role in the Sandakan Death March. Until the late 1960s, the frame of the gallows remained.
Brian Bennett recalls:
"Harry Croydon had been the Australian Provost Marshall in Rabaul post war and had a lot to do with Japanese POW who were held in Rabaul until about 1947. He saw a lot of the war criminals strung up. The steps for the gallows were by the main water tank at the Malaguna Vocational center for many years. Harry had a yard in Rabaul for ages that still had all sorts of interesting stuff in it. In Rabaul area it was Harry Croydon, Arthur Viggers, Arthur Brown, Pat Roberts, Jack Chipper."
Rabaul Japanese War Memorial (Japanese Peace Memorial)
Located off the Namanula Road built postwar by the Japanese as a peace memorial and a monument.
Evening Post "Japs Give In" September 7, 1945
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