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    Tol (Zungen Point) East New Britain Province Papua New Guinea (PNG)
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Australian Army c1945

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Australian Army c1945

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Australian Army
August 2, 1945

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Brian Bennett 1988

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Justin Taylan 2012
Tol is located on Zungen Spitze (Zungen Point), German for "Tounge Point", on the southern coast of New Britain bordering Henry Reid Harbor inside Wide Bay. Located to the west is Waitavalo and the mouth of the Henry Reid River. Beyond to the northeast is Rabaul. Prewar, Tol Plantation was planted with coconut palms harvesting copra.

Wartime History
By late January 1942, Australians that had evacuated Rabaul had reached Tol and the Wide Bay area, including a group of 25 RAAF personnel that found a yacht at Sum Sum and sailed to Tol.

On January 21, 1942 two Australian flying boats S.23 "Calypso" A18-11 and S.23 "Coogee" A18-12 took off form Port Moresby flying via Samarai and on January 22, 1942 at dusk landed in Henry Reid Harbor in Wide Bay off Tol rescue Australians assembled in the area including 25 Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) personnel plus 24 others including W/O Stanley McCosker and Australian Army signalers and civilians. After four hours loading, both boats departed safely at 7:22pm. Afterwards, S.23 "Coogee" A18-12 returned and rescued another 49 personnel.

Tol Massacre
During early February 1942, the Japanese Army landed at Tol. On February 4, 1942 four separate massacres of prisoners occurred at Tol and Waitavalo. In total, 141 Australians soldiers of "Lark Force" that retreated from Rabaul across New Britain were captured and executed, the majority at Tol Plantation. Stripped of their personal possessions, a group of 100 prisoners had their thumbs tied together with fishing line, then two or three tied together with rope. Each group was marched into the jungle in small groups where they were bayoneted to death or shot and their bodies left to rot. Afterwards, the Japanese departed. Several survived the massacre to report what happened. The killings became known as the Tol Plantation Massacre or Tol Massacre.

Pte William Cook was captured near Tol on February 3. Tied to Pte R. M. Cantwell, the pair were bayoneted. Cook was stabbed six times initially, then four times more times to make sure he was dead (other sources state he was stabbed eleven times). He feigned death and waited until the Japanese departed then freed himself from the rope and fishing line. Afterwards, he washed his wounds and traveled three miles over ten hours and found a party of Australians led by Col J. J. Scanlan and traveled for six more days to avoid the Japanese until finally reaching a medic named Palmer who commented "Cook, you're a tough old Bastard", dressed his wounds and allowed him to rest. Despite his wounds and a bout of malaria, reached Pal Mal Mal and was later evacuated aboard MV Laurabada from Jacquinot Bay to Port Moresby.

Gnr Hazegrove was captured at Tol, had his hands tied behind his back and was marched into kunai grass and shot without warning and hit in the back and the Japanese threw palm fronds over the bodies then departed. After freeing himself, he reached the beach and found two others who cared for him.

Collins was shot from behind in the shoulder, wrists and back. When alone, he fled and wandered the bush for three days then returned to Tol finding other Australians including Major Palmer and joined a group led by Frank Holland that crossed to the north coast and was able to escape on the MV Lakatoi. Another survivor was Robinson escaped before the massacre and was part of the party to escape aboard MV Lakatoi.

The Japanese landed in the Tol area again on February 8, 1942 with a group going inland to Mavelo River to Kasalea where they massacred more Australians. They landed again on February 12 to pickup troops from the Wuluwat and Mavelo Rivers. Japanese Army officer, Colonel Masao Kusunose, 3rd Battalion Commander, 144th Infantry Regiment, 55th Division was deemed largely responsibility for the massacres at Tol and Waitavalo. He survived the war and was detained postwar but committed suicide before facing justice.

On January 5, 1943 Captain Daniel and Major Bleasdale bailed out of B-17F "San Antonio Rose" Serial Number 41-24458, wandered the jungle for two weeks and were captured then brought to Tol then transported to Rabaul.

On November 8, 1943 MSgt Gordon Manuel traveled via Tol with friendly natives and reported:
"There was a radio station at Tol, on Henry Reid Bay, in front of the plantation house and next to the bay. This was bombed out of existence and a new station set up at Karolai which is believed to be a radar installation as well."

Australian Occupation
During late March 1945, Australian Army occupied Tol and immediately developed the area into a forward base for operations against Rabaul. They discovered and recovered the skeletal remains from the "Tol Massacre".

During June 1945, the situation was generally quiet throughout as the Australians established their perimeters in the area and engineers widened and surfaced roads around Tol and Waitavalo.

Tol Airfield
Built by the Australian Army during 1945.

A6M2 Model 21 Zero
Crashed or force landed at Tol.

Tol Massacre Memorial
Dedicated during May 1987.

Japanese Observation Post Zungen (Tol)
During late 1942 or early 1943, the Japanese Navy maintain an observation post at Zungen Point (Tol). They were able to observe enemy aircraft from New Guinea approaching or departing Rabaul. By early November 1943, this post was abandoned by the Japanese.

Rabaul – 1942 pages 8-9, 49 - 60
Australian Army Campaigns in New Guinea - New Britain
E&E Report MSgt Gordon Manuel page 17, Appendix 1, page 3
"8 November 1943 - The next morning we followed the coast road through Tol Plantation and went on to a native village controlled by an ex-native police boy called Petros. This village was just off the trail from Open Bay to Wide Bay which had been made by Malcom English, an Australian Patrol Officer before the war and presently an AIB man.
There was a radio station at Tol, on Henry Reid Bay, in front of the plantation house and next to the bay. This was bombed out of existence and a new station set up at Karolai [?] which is believed to be a radar installation as well."

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Last Updated
March 10, 2020


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