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569' x 600' 3" x 66' 1"
9 × 8" (3x3)
4 × 5" (4x1)
8 × .50 machine guns
6 × 21" torpedo tubes
4 × floatplanes
2 x catapults
Built by Newport News Shipbuilding in Newport News, Virginia. Laid down May 1, 1928. Launched September 7, 1929. Commissioned June 17, 1930 as USS Houston CL-30 with Captain Jesse Bishop Gay in command. On July 1, 1931 redesignated as a heavy cruiser as CA-30.
After conducting a shakedown cruise in the Atlantic, Houston returned to the United States in October 1930. Next on January 31, 1931 departed for Shanghai landing U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) and U.S. Navy (USN) personnel and patrolling the area. During 1933, Houston made a good will tour in the Philippines. On November 17, 1933 relieved by USS Augusta (CA-31) and returned to San Francisco.
On July 1, 1934 at Annapolis Houston hosted U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Cruised the Caribbean to Portland via Hawaii, then returned to San Diego on May 15, 1935. Next cruised off Alaskan then returned to Seattle and embarked the President again on 3 October for a vacation cruise to the Cerros Islands, Magdalena Bay, Cocos Islands, and Charleston. Houston attended the opening of the Golden Gate Bridge at San Francisco on May 28, 1937, again embarked U.S. President Roosevelt for a Fleet Review at San Francisco on July 14, 1938 and toured Central America during July-August, 1938.
Houston became flagship of the U.S. Fleet on September 19, 1938 until December 28. Participated in training exercises, including "Fleet Problem XX", on January 4, 1939 traveling from San Francisco via the Panama Canal to Norfolk and Key West. For the duration of the exercise embarked U.S. President Roosevelt and the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral William D. Leahy. Next arrived Houston arriving April 7, 1939 for a brief visit before returning via the Panama Canal to Seattle arriving May 30, 1939. Assigned as flagship of the Hawaiian Detachment, arrived Pearl Harbor for on December 7, 1939. On February 17, 1940 to Mare Island.
On November 3, 1940 departs via Hawaii bound for the Philippines and enters Manila Bay on November 19, 1940 and became the flagship of Admiral Thomas C. Hart, Commander Asiatic Fleet at Cavite Naval Base.
On December 4, 1941 arrives Ilo Ilo and was fueled and readied for action,. On December 7, 1941 at 6:30pm departs before Japanese bombers attacked and at sea is joined by light cruiser, USS Boise (CL-47) and the following day joined by USS Langley (CV-1), USS Stewart (DD-224) and USS John D. Edwards (DD-216), and the fleet oilers USS Pecos (AO-6) and USS Trinity (AO-13). On December 15, 1941 the convoy reached Balikpapan, then departed for Surabaya then Darwin arriving thirteen days later. After patrol duty, she joined the American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) force at Surabaya.
Battle of Makassar Strait
On February 4, 1942 during the Battle of Makassar Strait Houston was in the Flores Sea off Bali Island and attacked a Japanese convoy. Targeted by 36 G4M1 Betty and 24 G3M2 Nell bombers. Houston suffered one hit that disabled her no. 3 turret and her anti-aircraft gunners claimed four bombers shot down.
Ship of Ghosts pages 9-10:
"As another formation of the bombers crossed overhead , the antiaircraft officer couldn't stand waiting for the SOC to get airborne. His five-inch guns, elevated high, roared. At once the muzzle blast, just ten feet from the plane, tore the canvas skin right off the plane. As Lt. Harold S. Hamlin recalled, "the pilot found himself sitting on a picked chicken-the blast had removed every stitch of fabric from the plane. Pilot and crewman scrambled out, and the forlorn looking plane, naked as a jay-bird, was jettisoned."
After the battle, Houston went to Australia, then departed February 15, 1942 with a small convoy to reinforce the Allied garrison on Timor. That afternoon and the next morning, Japanese aircraft attacked but Houston was able to repel the aircraft without damage to any of vessels in the convoy.
she was escorting.
Battle of the Java Sea
On February 26, 1942 during the late afternoon, Houston with HMAS Perth, HNLMS De Ruyter, HMS Exeter, HNLMS Java plus ten destroyers locate the Japanese support force including four cruisers and 13 destroyers. The cruisers of both fleets opened fire and the Japanese made one ineffective torpedo attack, followed by a second at 17:00, sinking HNLMS Kortenaer. Next, HMS Exeter and HMS Electra were hit by gunfire, Electra sustaining several hits and sinking shortly after.
At 5:30pm Admiral Doorman turned south toward the Java coast, to attack Japanese transports. With dogged fighting spirit, he dodged another torpedo attack and followed the coastline and evaded another torpedo attack, when HMS Jupiter was sunk. Without destroyer protection, the cruisers including Houston attacked the Japanese surface group again. The Japanese fired torpedoes sinking De Ruyter and Java. Houston and Perth were able to retire from the battle.
On February 27, 1942 both Houston and HMAS Perth were in Banten Bay and participated in the Battle of the Java Sea and evaded nine torpedoes fired by Fubuki then sank one Japanese transport and forced three to beach but was blocked from withdrawing by Japanese warships in Sunda Strait.
On February 28, 1942 at 2:30pm Houston and HMAS Perth were at Tanjong Priok when ordered to Tjilitap. Houston departed with only fifty rounds left for her main guns as the pair tried to escape via the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra.
Battle of Sunda Strait
On February 28, 1942 at 10.30pm Houston and Perth were spotted by Japanese destroyer Fubuki that quietly shadowed them for a half hour. At 11:36pm at the start of the Battle of Sunda Strait Perth came under gunfire. At 11:55pm Houston scored hits on Mikuma causing her to temporarily lose electrical power that was quickly restored. Meanwhile, Fubuki fired a spread of torpedoes at Houston and Perth but missed both and accidentally hit a Japanese transport. Other Japanese destroyers engaged and overpowered both Allied ships. During the battle, Houston's gunners scored hits on three different destroyers and sank a minesweeper.
On March 1, 1942 after midnight Houston fought alone until she took a torpedo and began to lose headway and sustained three more torpedo hits in rapid succession. Captain Albert Rooks was killed by a bursting shell at 12:30am and as the ship came to a stop Japanese destroyers moved in machine gunning the decks. Several minutes later, Houston rolled over and sank.
The shipwreck of the Houston is located at roughly Lat 05.48.45S Long 106.7.55E.
Fates of the Crew
Of the crew of 1,061 only 368 survived including 24 of the 74 man U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) detachment aboard. The surviving crew were captured by the Japanese and became Prisoners Of War (POW). During the Pacific War, 77 of the crew died of torture, disease and starvation working as forced laborers including work on the "Death Railway" in Thailand. and Burma.
Memorial plaque at Rockingham Naval Memorial Park in Western Australia.
USS Houston CA-30 Association
Ship of Ghosts Ship of Ghosts: The Story of the USS Houston, FDR's Legendary Lost Cruiser, and the Epic Saga of her Survivors page 9-10
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