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Atlanta-class light cruiser
541' 6" x 52' 2" x 16' 4"
16 x 5" Guns
9 x 1.1" Guns
8 x 20mm cannons
6 x depth charge proj
2 x depth charge tracks
Built by Federal Shipbuilding Company in Kearny, New Jersey. Laid down on May 27, 1940. Launched on October 25, 1941 as USS Juneau named after Juneau, Alaska sponsored by Mrs. Harry I. Lucas, wife of city's mayor. Commissioned February 14, 1942 with Captain Lyman K. Swenson in command.
Following a hurried shakedown cruise along the Atlantic coast in the spring of 1942, Juneau assumed blockade patrol in early May off Martinique and Guadeloupe Islands to prevent the escape of Vichy French Naval units. She returned to New York to complete alterations and operated in the North Atlantic and Caribbean from 1 June-12 August on patrol and escort duties.
The cruiser departed for the Pacific Theater on August 22. After stopping briefly at the Tonga and New Caledonia, she rendezvoused on 10 September with Task Force 18 (TF 18) under the command of Rear Admiral Leigh Noyes, flying his flag on USS Wasp. The following day TF 17, which included Hornet, combined with Admiral Noyes' unit to form TF 61, whose mission was to ferry fighter aircraft to Guadalcanal.
On 15 September, Wasp took three torpedo hits from the Japanese submarine I-19, and, with fires raging out of control, was sunk at 2100 by Lansdowne. Juneau and screen destroyers rescued 1,910 survivors of Wasp and returned them to Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides on 16 September. The next day, the fast cruiser rejoined TF 17. Operating with the Hornet group, she supported three actions that repulsed enemy thrusts at Guadalcanal: the Buin-Fasi-Tonolai Raid; the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands; and the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal (Third Savo).
Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands
Juneau's first major action was during the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. On 24 October, Hornet's task force had combined with Enterprise group to reform TF 61 under the command of Rear Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid. This force positioned itself north of the Santa Cruz Islands in order to intercept enemy units that might attempt to close Guadalcanal. Meanwhile, on Guadalcanal, the Japanese achieved a breakthrough along Lunga Ridge on the night of 25 October. That success evidently was a signal for enemy surface units to approach the island.
Early on the morning of October 26, 1942, US carrier planes uncovered the enemy force and immediately attacked it, damaging two Japanese carriers, one battleship, and three cruisers. But while American aircraft were locating and engaging the enemy, American ships were also under fire. Shortly after 1000, some 27 enemy aircraft attacked Hornet. Though Juneau and other screen ships fired effective AA barrage which splashed about 20 of the attackers, but Hornet was badly damaged and sank the next day. Just before noon, Juneau left Hornet's escort for the beleaguered Enterprise group several miles away. Adding her firepower, Juneau help in repulsing four enemy attacks on that force and splashing 18 Japanese planes.
That evening the American forces retired to the southeast. Although the battle had been costly, it - combined with the Marine victory on Guadalcanal - turned back the attempted Japanese parry in the Solomons. Furthermore, the damaging of two Japanese carriers sharply curtailed the air cover available for the upcoming Naval Battle of Guadalcanal.
Naval Battle of Guadalcanal
On November 8, 1942, Juneau departed Nouméa as a unit of TF 67 under the command of Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner to escort reinforcements to Guadalcanal. The force arrived there early morning on 12 November, and Juneau took up her station in the protective screen around the transports and cargo vessels. Unloading proceeded unmolested until 1405, when 30 Japanese planes attacked the alerted United States group. The AA fire was effective, and Juneau alone accounted for six enemy torpedo bombers shot down. The few remaining Japanese planes were in turn attacked by American fighters; only one bomber escaped. Later in the day, an American attack group of cruisers and destroyers cleared Guadalcanal on reports that a large enemy surface force was headed for the island.
On November 13, 1942 at 1:48am, Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan's relatively small Landing Support Group engaged the enemy. The Japanese force consisted of two battleships, one light cruiser, and nine destroyers.
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