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    Russia (Russian Federation, Soviet Union, USSR)  
Russia spans from eastern Europe across Asia to the north Pacific Ocean. During World War II, known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) or the Soviet Union. In the far east, Russia borders Mongolia, China (and formally Manchuria). After the collapse of the Soviet Union on December 26, 1991, known as the Russian Federation or simply Russia.

Wartime History
During 1939, the Soviet Union and Japan were engaged in two undeclared border wars: Battle of Lake Khasan / Changkufeng Incident July-August 1938 at the border with Manchuria. Next, Battle of Nomonhan / Battle of Khalkhin Gol May-August 1949 at the border between Manchuria and Mongolia. Although both were considered Soviet victories, the conflicts spawned the formation of a neutrality pact between the two nations.

On April 13, 1941 the Soviet Union and Japan signed the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact (Japanese–Soviet Non-aggression Pact) to ensure peace between the two nations for most of World War II. On April 5, 1945 the Soviet Union renounced the pact.

On August 9, 1945 after midnight, the Soviet Union launched "Operation August Storm" attacking Manchuria and officially declaring war on Japan six hours later on August 8, 1945 in Moscow, technically delivered prior to the attack. Until the official surrender of Japan on September 2, 1945, the Soviet Union attacked Manchuria, Sakhalin Island and Kurile Islands. Postwar, Russia gained former Japanese territories including Sakhalin Island and Kurile Islands.

Sakhalin Oblast
Kurile Islands (Kuril Chishima-Rettō)  located to the north of Japan and south of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Sakhalin Island (Karafuto)  large island between Hokkaido in Japan and the Kamchatka Peninsula.

Zabaykalsky Krai
Chita  located to the north of Mongolia and Manchuria.
Borzya  located to the north of Mongolia and Manchuria.
Dauriya (Tansbaikal)  located to the north of Mongolia and Manchuria.

Khabarovsk Krai
Khabarovsk  located to the north of Mongolia and Manchuria.

Kamchatka Krai (Камча́тский край)  includes the Kamchatka Peninsula and offshore islands.

Primorsky Krai (Maritime Province)  located in eastern Maritime Province including Vladivostok and Lake Khasan.

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Last Updated
August 18, 2019


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