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    Russia (Russian Federation)  
Russia spans from eastern Europe across Asia to the north Pacific Ocean. Officially known as the Russian Federation spanning from Eastern Europe across northern Asia to the Far East. The national capital is Moscow. Between 1922–1991 known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR, Soviet Union). In the Far East, borders Mongolia and China.

On December 28, 1922 established by the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and Declaration of the Creation of the USSR that officially established the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

World War II
During the late 1930's the poorly defined borders of the Empire of Manchukuo resulted in border incidents and conflicts including two undeclared border wars. The first was the Battle of Lake Khasan / Changkufeng Incident in July 1938–August 1938 at the border between Manchuria and Russia. The second was the Battle of Nomonhan / Battle of Khalkhin Gol in May 1939–September 1939 at the border between Manchuria and Mongolia. Although both were considered Soviet victories, these conflicts spawned a neutrality pact between the USSR and Japan.

On April 13, 1941 the Soviet Union and Japan signed the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact (Japanese–Soviet Non-Aggression Pact) to ensure peace between the two nations for nearly the duration of World War II. On April 5, 1945 the Soviet Union renounced the pact, signaling the potential for hostility of the USSR against Japan.

On August 9, 1945 after midnight, the Soviet Union launched "Operation August Storm" attacking Manchuria. Until the official surrender of Japan on September 2, 1945, the Soviet Union captured territory in Manchuria, Sakhalin Island and Kurile Islands. Postwar, Russia turned over Manchuria to China and was granted former Japanese territory including Sakhalin Island and Kurile Islands.

December 1991 marked the collapse of the Soviet Union and formation of the Russian Federation (Russia). On December 25, 1991 Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev resigned and handed power over to Russian President Boris Yeltsin. On December 26, 1991 marked the official dissolution of the USSR by the Supreme Soviet by declaration 142-Н.

Russia is offcially known as the Russian Federation. In Russian, Российская Федерация. Russia's national capital and largest city is Moscow. Russia is the largest nation in the world bordering sixteen other countries and spans from the Eastern Europe to the Far East bordering the North Pacific Ocean. Today, divided into eight Federal Districts.

Russian Federal Districts
Central District with the administative center Moscow.
Northwestern District with administrative center Saint Petersburg.
Southern District with administrative center Rostov-on-Don
North Caucasian District with administrative center Pyatigorsk
Volga District with administrative center Nizhny Novgorod.
Ural District with administrative center Yekaterinburg
Siberian District with administrative center Novosibirsk
Far Eastern Federal District  largest of eight districts with administrative center Vladivostok

Zabaykalsky Krai
Chita  located to the north of Mongolia and Manchuria.
Borzya  located to the north of Mongolia and Manchuria.
Dauriya (Tansbaikal)  located to the north of Mongolia and Manchuria.

Khabarovsk Krai
Khabarovsk  located to the north of Mongolia and Manchuria.

Sakhalin Oblast (Сахалинская область)  includes Sakhalin Island and the Kurile Islands (Kuril).
Kamchatka Krai (Камча́тский край)  located in the Far East includes the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Primorsky Krai (Maritime Province)  located in the Far East includes Vladivostok and Lake Khasan.

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Last Updated
May 3, 2022


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