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5th Bombardment Group (5th BG) "Bomber Barons"
U.S. Army Air Force (USAAF)
Background
During World War II, the 5th Bombardment Group (Heavy) "Bomber Barons" (5th BG) operated the B-24 Liberator in the South Pacific (SOPAC) comprised of Headquarters Squadron (HQ), 23rd Bombardment Squadron (23rd BS), 31st Bombardment Squadron (31st BS), 72nd Bombardment Squadron (72nd BS) and 394th Bombardment Squadron (394th BS). Nicknamed "Bomber Barons" the motif was a skull with wings with "Kiai O Kalewa" (Hawaiian for "Guardians of the Upper Realm").

Wartime History
The 5th Bombardment Group (5th BG) nicknamed "Bomber Barons" operated in the South Pacific (SOPAC) during World War II. At the start of the Pacific War, assigned to the 7th Air Force (7th AF). In 1943, assigned to the 13th Air Force (13th AF). On June 15, 1944 became part of the Far East Air Force (FEAF) until the end of World War II.

Headquarters Squadron (HQ)
During 1941, the 31st BS was part of the 7th Air Force and based at Hickam Field. During 1942 assigned to Mokuleia Field. On December 1, 1942 transfers to Bomber 1 on Espiritu Santo. On December 30, 1943 lost is B-24D "Pretty Prairie Special" 41-24186 piloted by Lt. Colonel Marion D. Unruh. Nine of the crew are captured and become Prisoners Of War (POW). Only Unruh survived captivity until the Pacific War.

23rd Bombardment Squadron (23rd BS)
The 23rd Bombardment Squadron (23rd BS) served in the South Pacific.

31st Bombardment Squadron (31st BS)
During 1941, the 31st BS was part of the 7th Air Force and based at Hickam Field operating B-18 Bolo and B-17 Flying Fortress. On December 7, 1941 during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and Oahu, the squadron suffered four Killed In Action (KIA) and nine Wounded In Action (WIA).

On May 23, 1942 the 31st BS transfered to Kipapa Field.

On November 30, 1942 arrived at Bomber 1 on Espiritu Santo and began flying combat missions in the South Pacific. On January 17, 1943 arrives at Henderson Field on Guadalcanal and later Carney Field. By early 1943, the squadron began flying only B-24 Liberators. On February 2, 1944 transfered to Munda Airfield on New Georgia Island.

On August 12, 1943 nine B-24s from the 31st BS plus sixteen B-24's from the 307th BG escorted by eight P-40s of the 44th FS and 22 F4Us from VMF-124 flew a bombing mission over Kahili (Buin) on Bougainville. The bombers drop 520 x 100lbs bombs on the runway and revetment areas and claim twenty aircraft destroyed on the ground. Returning, the formation is attacked by roughly 30 A6M Zeros over Ballale.

On March 13, 1944 the squadron returns to Carney Field on Guadalcanal. On April 21, 1944 transfered to Momote Airfield on Los Negros Island. On August 20, 1944 to Wakde Airfield on Wakde Island. Operated from Pitu Airfield on Morotai Island. On March 17, 1945 transfered to Guiuan Airfield on Samar Island in the eastern Visayas Islands of the Philippines until the end of the Pacific War.

References
Combat Squadrons of the Air Force World War II (1982) pages 152-153 (31st Bombardment) [PDF pages 164-165]

50th Reconnaissance Squadron (50th RS)
On August 6, 1917 organized as 50th Aero Squadron. On March 14, 1921 redesignated as 50th Squadron. On January 25, 1923 redesignated as 50th Observation Squadron. On August 1, 1927 inactivated. On November 1, 1930 reactivated as the 50th Observation Squadron was reactivated at Luke Field with O-19Bs to perform aerial reconnaissance and patrols off Oahu. On January 25, 1938 redesignated 50th Reconnaissance Squadron (50th RS) and attached to the 5th Bombardment Group (5th BG). On December 6, 1939 redesignated 50th Reconnaissance Squadron (Medium Range). On November 20, 1940 redesignated as 50th Reconnaissance Squadron (Heavy). On April 22, 1942 redesignated as 431st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy).

References
Combat Squadrons of the Air Force World War II (1982) pages 531 (50th Recon Squadron) [PDF pages 543]
Courage Before Every Danger - Honor Honor Before All Men The History of the 31st Bombardment Squadron (H) in World War II In Their Own Words (2010) by Joanne Pfannenstiel Emerick

72nd Bombardment Squadron (72nd BS)

The 72nd Bombardment Squadron (Heavy). At the start of the Pacific War, operates the B-18 Bolo. On May 17, 1942 converts to the B-17 Flying Fortress. On June 4, 1942 during the Battle of Midway, 72nd BS B-17s flew from Hickam Field to Midway Airfield and flew bombing missions against the Japanese Fleet. Afterwards, flown across the Pacific to Espiritu Santo.

On October 4, 1942 begins operating from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal. That same day, B-17E Flying Fortress 41-9118 piloted by piloted by David C. Everitt took off on a mission against Buka Airfield but could not find the target and encountered bad weather. Returning, spotted six warships and was deliberately rammed from below by a F1M2 Pete pilot Kiyomi. The right wing of the F1M2 Pete impacted this B-17's right wing, tearing off the wing tip damaging the vertical stabilizer and immediately caused the B-17 to descend in a spiral before then crashed into the sea.

On October 10, 1943 lost B-24D "My Baby Bubb" 42-40210 pilot Captain Charles K. Frampton (MIA) crashed into the sea northwest of Choiseul.

On March 5, 1944 the squadron flew a bombing mission against Tobera Airfield near Rabaul. Lost was B-24D Liberator 42-73469 pilot Captain Lewis W. Haire after the bomb run, hit by anti-aircraft fire with seven crew Missing In Action (MIA). Only SSgt Escoe E. Palmer managed to bail out and became a Prisoner Of War (POW) and survived captivity at Rabaul until liberated at the end of the Pacific War.

On October 24, 1944 lost is B-24J 44-40947 (MIA) on an armed search for enemy shipping off Borneo.

References
Combat Squadrons of the Air Force World War II (1982) pages 264-265 (72nd Bombardment) [PDF pages 276-277]

394th Bombardment Squadron (394th BS)
The 394th Bombardment Squadron (394th BS) served in the South Pacific.

431st Bombardment Squadron (431st BS)
On April 22, 1942 the 50th Reconnaissance Squadron (50th RS) was redesignated as 431st Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) . On August 3, 1944 redesignated as 431st Bombardment Squadron (431st BS). On April 26, 1946 redesignated 5th Reconnaissance Squadron, Very Long Range, Photographic. On October 20, 1947 inactivated.

References
Combat Squadrons of the Air Force World War II (1982) pages 531-532 (431st Bombardment) [PDF pages 543-544]

Commanding Officers (C. O.)
Lt. Col. Edwin B. Bobzien (April 1941–January 1942)
Col. A. W. Meehan (January 1942–October 1942)
Lt. Colonel B. E. Allen (November 1942–August 1943)
Lt. Colonel Marion D. Unruh (August 10, 1943December 30, 1943)
Lt. Col J. C. Reddoch, Jr. (December 30, 1943–August 1944)
Col. T. C. Musgrave (August 1944–February 1945)
Lt. Col. A. W. James (February 1945–March 1945)
Lt. Col. I. J. Haviland (March 1945–July 1945)
Lt. Col. A. W. James (July 1945–January 1947)

References
Pacific Wrecks - 5th Bombardment Group "Bomber Barons" Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress
Pacific Wrecks - 5th Bombardment Group "Bomber Barons" Consolidated B-24 Liberators
5thBomber Barons.info
History of the Fifth Bombardment Group: The Story of 5th Bombardment Group (Heavy) (1946)
40th Anniversary Headquarters 5th Bombardment Wing (H) (SAC) Kiai O Kalewa Travis Air Force Base, February 13-14, 1959
The Bomber Barons: The History of the 5th Bomb Group in the Pacific during World War II (1982) by Frederick A. Johnsen
Captain James Donald Robertson His Life and Times From Judith Gap, Montana To World War II In The South Pacific (1995)
Bomber Barons 5th Bomb Group Heavy (2000)
Scootin' Thunder (2006) by Beth Houser
Courage Before Every Danger - Honor Honor Before All Men The History of the 31st Bombardment Squadron (H) in World War II In Their Own Words (2010) by Joanne Pfannenstiel Emerick
Thanks to Richard O'Brien, 5th Bombardment Group Association and Joanne Emerick, 31st Bombardment Squadron Association for additional information


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