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5th BG c1943
5th BG Dec 31, 1943
FindAGrave Aug 28, 2009
Randy Watkins 2010
|Pilot Colonel Marion D. Unruh, O-298478 5th BG C.O. (POW, survived) Pretty Prairie, Kansas
Co-Pilot 1st Lt Thomas B. Fessenger, Jr., O-663706 (POW, died July 15, 1944, BNR, MIA) San Francisco, CA
Navigator Major Frederick K. Koebig, O-375573 (MIA / POW executed March 5, 1944) Los Angeles, CA
Bombardier 1st Lt Anthony Kuhn, O-738645 (MIA / POW executed March 5, 1944) Dickinson, ND
Engineer SSgt Lawson Stewart, 34425408 (MIA / POW executed March 5, 1944) Summit, MS
Asst Engineer Cpl Vincent Wasilevski, 1303815 (MIA / POW executed March 5, 1944) Duquesne, PA
Radio SSgt Roy E. Bixler, 35005257 (MIA / KIA) Salem, OH
Asst Radio Sgt John J. Gillis Jr., 20610868 5th BG, HQ (MIA / POW died August 2, 1944) Chicago, IL
Gunner SSgt Edward T. Constantin, 14123662 (MIA / POW executed March 5, 1944) Rockaway Beach, NY
Gunner SSgt Romulus F. Mull, 14187785 (MIA / POW executed March 5, 1944) Kanapolis, NC
Photographer/Gunner SSgt Albert Schaffran, 13039217 (MIA / KIA) Pittsburgh, PA
Crashed December 30, 1943
Built by Consolidated at San Diego on November 11, 1942 at a cost of $289,276.00 using funds F-1 under aircraft order number W535-AO-4 DA. Constructors Number 981. The main spar of this bomber was constructors number 982, likely due to the wing assembly being switched with the next bomber in the assembly line during construction. Constructors Number 982 was assigned to the next bomber in the production line B-24D 41-24187.
Delivered to the U. S. Army Air Force (USAAF) as B-24D-20-CO Liberator serial number 41-24186. This bomber was modified at Fort Worth, Texas. Afterwards, ferried overseas via Hickam Field across the Pacific to the South Pacific (SOPAC).
Assigned to the 13th Air Force (13th AF), 5th Bombardment Group (5th BG), Headquarters Squadron (HQ) to pilot Colonel Marion D. Unruh 5th Bombardment Group Commanding Officer (C.O.) who nicknamed the airplane "Pretty Prairie SPECIAL" (special in capital letters) after his hometown of Pretty Prairie, Kansas with the nose art of a sunflower on the right side of the nose. Later, the 5th Bombardment Group logo was added above the nickname.
Below the cockpit were yellow bomb markings (two rows the top row with 1+5+5 bomb marks and the bottom row with 5+5 bomb marks) indicating combat missions flown and a single Japanese rising sun flag indicating an aircraft claimed by the bomber's gunner. On the lower side of the wing was "U. S. Army" in black. This bomber had olive drab upper surfaces and gray lower surfaces.
This B-24 operated from Carney Field on Guadalcanal and later Munda Airfield on New Georgia. During 1943, this bomber flew at least twenty-one bombing missions in the South Pacific over the Solomon Islands and Rabaul.
When lost, engines R-1830-43 serial numbers 42-43512, 41-14865, 42-37030, 42-59069. Armed with ten .50 caliber machine guns plus one spare. Also aboard were two .30 caliber machine guns. None of the weapon serial numbers were noted in Missing Air Crew Report 1620 (MACR 1620).
On December 30, 1943 took off from Munda Airfield on New Georgia piloted by Colonel Marion D. Unruh armed with 1,000 pound bombs leading a bombing mission against Rabaul.
Inbound to the target, the weather was very poor as the formation flew following the western coast of Bougainville before flying westward towards the target. Over the target, the bombers were intercepted by enemy fighters but managed to successfully bomb Rabaul.
Returning, this this bomber sustained some damage causing the bomb bay doors to hang open. About five to ten miles southeast of the Duke of York Islands over the sea, two explosions were observed within the aircraft: one ahead omitting clear blue smoke and causing three of the four doors to fall off. Afterwards, this B-24 rocked its wings to signal that it was dropping out of formation with the no. 2 engine smoking before entering cloud cover over the center of Saint Georges Channel.
Last seen by Captain Leo L. Hunt and Captain Leo L. Hunt at 12:37 descending into clouds from an altitude of 10,000' roughly ten miles north of the southern tip of New Ireland under control. When this bomber failed to return, it was officially declared Missing In Action (MIA).
After descending through the clouds, this B-24 was seen by local people with the engine smoking coming from Cape Saint George before the crew bailed out and the bomber crashed into hillside on the southeastern coast of New Ireland.
Statement by Major John Zinn, Jr. via Missing Air Crew Report 1620 (MACR 1620) page 15:
"First indication of trouble to airplane #186 was when bomb doors were hanging open after bombing run. Soon thereafter the doors came loose. About two (2) minutes later there was a well coordinated rolling motion about the lateral axis of #186, followed by a diving turn left. This airplane disappeared into a deck of stratus clouds at about 10,000' apparently under control, and on the course of 120°. I assumed lead of the formation, radioed a report of the incident, and proceeded to Koli Field."
Statement by Captain Leo L. Hunt via Missing Air Crew Report 1620 (MACR 1620) page 16:
"When bombay doors were closed after bombing run, doors were hanging from ship #186, indicating damage thereto by enemy fighter fire. Three doors later came off. About five (5) to ten (10) miles southeast of Duke of York Islands over water, this pilot observed two explosions within the stricken airplane one in front and one in rear, omitting a clear, blue smoke. At this points only one (1) bombay door had fallen off. Almost immediately after, stricken aircraft rocked wings violently to signal that he was dropping from the formation and did drop from formation taking up course of approximately 100° mag, turning back to 120° mag as the airplane arrived at cloud cover. #2 engine at this point was smoking badly and seemed to be on fire. Aircraft last seen descending into clouds at altitude of 10-12,000' over New Ireland, ten (10) miles north of south tip. When airplane left formation all visual indications were that pilot had full control of airplane and it is of the opinion of this pilot that pilot on airplane #186 was loosing altitude of his own accord, knowing that fire in #2 engine would burn off left wing."
After the loss of this bomber, Lt. Col. Joseph C. Reddoch, Jr., O-21315 was the officer in charge of the search. On December 31, 1943 five B-24s from the 5th Bombardment Group took off from Koli Field (Bomber 3) on Guadalcanal conducted a search mission over Bougainville and New Ireland. Three of the bombers reported nothing and returned to base with negative results.
At 10:30am the two B-24s piloted by 2nd Lt. James D. Robertson and Captain Oscar G. Fitzhenry spotted something white on the southern coast of New Ireland. Flying closer and down to lower altitude, they spotted a white parachute being waved by eight men at roughly Lat 4.43 Long 153.00. Flying at low altitude, the B-24 piloted by Fitzhenry took three photographs of a group of eight white men on the beach plus native people and native huts among the coconut trees. They were unable to determine their precise identity but believed the tallest man was Colonel Marion D. Unruh. The bombers circled at 400' and 100' and dropped a medical kit, rations and relayed their position at 11:30am and noon before departing due to lack of fuel and returned to Guadalcanal.
Statement by Captain Oscar G. Fitzhenry Subject: Report on Missing Aircraft" 5 January 1944 via Missing Air Crew Report 1620 (MACR 1620) page 17:
"[December 31, 1943] I flew within 100 feet of the men on the beach, and at the same time my waist gunner counted eight men on the beach. We buzzed the place once more, dropping the large emergency kit and taking two photos. The gunners thought they recognized Col. Unruh standing on the beach, and identified one of the Colonel's enlisted men. Both ships then left and each of us sent a message to COMAIRSOLS, telling them the time sighted, position, and number of persons sighted. Lieut. Roberson, pilot of the other plane sent his message 1130L and I sent mine at 1200L. Before this latter message was sent, the identical message was sent to COMAIRSOLS through DANE Base, and I was told the message would receive immediate attention. Upon landing, we found that Group Operations already had word, proving that at least one of the messages was received. The film was developed and found to show eight men on the beach, several natives in the background, and a number of native huts among the coconut trees. We did not land at Munda Airfield because of bad weather."
Statement by 2nd Lt. James D. Robertson Subject: Report on Missing Aircraft" 6 January 1944 via Missing Air Crew Report 1620 (MACR 1620) page 19:
"[December 31, 1943] Flying one of five planes on special search mission for Col. Unruh, I approached to within one mile of the coast of New Ireland and proceeded south along the coast line. Just as I was pulling away to join the formation, one of the gunners noticed something white on the shore. I flew over to investigate and found the object to be a parachute waved by several men on the beach. I flew over them at about 400 feet. They were white men, and eight in number. As I circled and buzzed them at an altitude of approximately 50 feet, my crew threw the plane's emergency rations kit overboard. It was observed to land and break up on the beach near the stranded men who ran to salvage the contents. Sgt. Clute, waist gunner, said he was certain that he recognized an enlisted man on Col. Unruh's crew. At this time, Capt. Fitzhenry was also circling and dropping rations. We then started for home. My radio operator immediately sent a coded report to COMAIRSOLS and received an acknowledgment and he heard Capt. Fitzhenry's message sent and acknowledged a few minutes later. This message was sent to COMAIRSOLS through DANE Base."
Statement by 1st Lt. Paul L. Driscoll Subject: Search Effort for Missing Aircraft" 5 January 1944 via Missing Air Crew Report 1620 (MACR 1620) page 18:
"Upon receipt of Captain Fitzhenry's report, a Dumbo was dispatched but the search proved negative. Additional searches were conducted by COMAIRSOLS with negative results, and on 4 January 1944, we received notification that searches would be discontinued for a period to prevent attention being directed to the Japs as to the location of the men sighted."
On January 2, 1944 2nd Lt. James D. Robertson was flown to Munda Airfield to participate in an attempt to rescue the crew. On January 3, 1944 a U. S. Navy PBY Catalina "Dumbo" escorted by fighters was sent to the location where the crew were spotted but did not see any of the crew and never landed to attempt a rescue. Additional searched yielded no results. On January 4, 1944 the search for the crew was terminated without result.
Fates of the Crew
Two of the crew: Bixler and Schaffran were never seen again and are both listed as Missing In Action (MIA) the day of the mission. Both are presumed to either have bailed out with the rest of the crew or may have gone down with the B-24 when it crashed.
Nine of the crew: Unruh, Fessenger, Koebig, Kuhn, Stewart, Wasilevski, Gillis, Constantin and Mull parachuted out of the B-24 over southeastern New Ireland. Several of the crew landed in the sea and were aided ashore by locals in outrigger canoes that paddled out to assist them.
By December 31, 1943 the nine survivors were together a native village on the coast. At 10:30am they survivors were spotted by two B-24s piloted by 2nd Lt. James D. Robertson and Captain Oscar G. Fitzhenry that dropped a medical kit and rations before departing. Flying at low level, a photographer aboard Captain Oscar G. Fitzhenry took series of photographs were taken of the surviving on the beach. They were never seen again by other search aircraft.
Sometime after December 31, 1943 the nine survivors were ambushed at night by Japanese forces that opened fire on the hut they were sleeping inside. During the ambush, the crew attempted to flee.
After the ambush, six were captured: Koebig, Kuhn, Stewart, Wasilevski, Gillis, Constantin and Mull and taken to Cape Saint George then transported to Rabaul and became Prisoners Of War (POW) of the Japanese Army Kempei-Tai.
After the ambush, Unruh and Fessenger managed to escape and together fled into the jungle and were able to evade capture approximately two weeks until they became separated. By January 15, 1944 both were captured by the Japanese Army and transported to Rabaul where they became Prisoners Of War (POW) of the Japanese Army Kempei-Tai.
The eight crew were detained by the Japanese Army Kempei-Tai at the Rabaul Prisoner Compound (Rabaul POW Camp). On March 2, 1944 in the evening due to the heavy bombing of Rabaul, the crew and other Allied POWs were trucked to Tunnel Hill POW Camp and guarded by 6th Kempeitai (6th Kempei-Tai).
On March 5, 1944 six of the crew: Koebig, Kuhn, Stewart, Wasilevski, Constantin and Mull were removed from Tunnel Hill POW Camp as part of group of twenty-one Allied prisoners that were executed at Tanoura during the Talili Bay Massacre (Tunnel Hill Massacre / Tunnel Hill Incident).
Afterwards, the two of the crew: Fessenger and Gillis remained in captivity at Tunnel Hill POW Camp. On July 15, 1944 Fessenger died of malnutrition and his remains were never recovered and remains listed as Missing In Action (MIA). On August 2, 1944 Gillis died of malnutrition and his remains were recovered postwar as Unknown 139 (X-File X-139) and later was identified.
Missing Air Crew Report 1620 (MACR 1620) page 6:
"3. On or about 15 to 20 June 1944, several members of the 5th Bombardment Group (H) overheard a radio broadcast from Radio Tokyo in which messages were read, purporting to come from known members of the missing crew. One example was heard by Major Edward T. Brown, O-316413, and Captain Thomas M. Clyburn, O-260325, in which the journal text of the message was along the following lines, 'We are bringing you a message from Lt. Thomas B. Fessenger, glad to be out of the war.... and similar statements of propaganda, ending with a request that his Mother, 'Mrs. H. L. Fessenger, 4 Cortes San Francisco, California', be notified he was well and for not to worry. [Fessenger died on July 15, 1944] A similar message was heard by the same two officers about 21 June, pertaining to Major Frederick K. Koebig, O-375573, statements were made '.... when our reporter interviewed Major Koebig he was in good health, etc [Koebig was executed March 5, 1944]".
After he was captured in the middle of January 1944, Colonel Marion D. Unruh was briefly detained at Rabaul and interrogated by the Japanese Army Kempei-Tai. A document detailing his interrogation was captured by the Allies and translated by late February 1944. Unruh was correctly identified as the Commanding Officer (C. O.) of the 5th Bombardment Group. Afterwards, he was transported to Japan.
Missing Air Crew Report 1620 (MACR 1620) page 6:
"4. A captured document, translated and distributed by Headquarters XIV Corps, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, APO 453, 25 February 1944, covers the Japanese interrogation of a Commanding Officer of the 5th Bombardment Group (H) to enemy action."
Afterwards, Unruh was transported to Japan and detained at several locations including Rokuroshi POW Camp. As the senior officer in that camp, he became the commander of the American prisoners. At the end of the Pacific War, he accepted the surrender of the camp commander Lt. Tsuntaro Habo who turned over his sword to Unruh in front of the U. S. flag before it was raised over the camp when Japan surrendered. On October 25, 1945 he was reported at Osaka Main Camp Chikko in Osaka then repatriated to the United States.
Recovery of Remains
Postwar, the remains of the Koebig, Kuhn, Stewart, Wasilevski, Mull and Constantin executed at Talili Bay were recovered and transported to the United Sates for permanent burial.
Bixler was officially declared dead on December 30, 1943 and remains listed as Missing In Action (MIA). He earned the Air Medal with four Oak Leaf Clusters and the Purple Heart, posthumously. Bixler remains listed as Missing In Action (MIA) and is memorialized at Manila American Cemetery on the tablets of the missing. He also has a memorial marker at Mount Union Cemetery in Alliance, OH in the eastern part of the cemetery.
Schaffran was officially declared dead on December 30, 1943 and remains listed as Missing In Action (MIA). He earned the Air Medal and the Purple Heart, posthumously. Schaffran is memorialized at Manila American Cemetery on the tablets of the missing.
Fessenger was officially declared dead on July 15, 1944 and remains listed as Missing In Action (MIA). He earned the Air Medal. Fessenger is memorialized at Manila American Cemetery on the tablets of the missing.
Gillis was officially declared dead August 2, 1944. Postwar, his remains were recovered as Unknown 139 (X-139) and later identified as Gillis. He was initially buried at the American Cemetery at Finschafen at USAF Cemetery Finschafen No. 5 Cemetery at temporary 2, grave 2. Later, his remains were transported to the Philippines and permanently buried at Manila American Cemetery plot D row 6 grave 1.
On March 21, 1950 Koebig, Kuhn, Stewart, Wasilevski, Mull and Constantin were buried in a group burial with others executed at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery at section 78 sites 930-934. The grave lists the date of death as March 5, 1944 for Kuhn, Stewart, Wasilevski, Mull and Constantin and March 6, 1944 for Koebig.
Mull also has a memorial marker at Mulls Chapel Cemetery in Cooksville, NC.
Constantin also has a memorial marker at Green Hill Cemetery in Waynesville, NC in section two.
Postwar, Col. Marion D. Unruh remained in U. S. Air Force (USAF) and during the Korean War served in Japan. During World War II, Unruh earned the Distinguished Service Medal (DSM) with an oak leaf clusters, Silver Star, Legion of Merit with two oak leaf clusters, the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) with four oak leaf clusters and the Purple Heart. After retiring form the military he returned to his hometown in Pretty Prairie, Kansas. He died on April 14, 1968 in a plane crash. He is buried at Lone Star Cemetery in Pretty Prairie, KS.
Jack Unruh (son of Marion D. Unruh)
Jesse Unruh (son of Marion D. Unruh)
Dale Anderson (nephew of Anthony Kuhn)
Joseph Ugalde (first cousin twice removed Edward Constantin)
"This is absolutely remarkable! This information really helps us put the pieces of the puzzle together and have a better understanding of our family during those challenging war torn years. I have already shared much of what we discussed with the family and they are just astounded. It's honestly like something out of a movie."
Paige Fontaine (great-grand niece of Lawson Stewart)
"I’d like to honor my great-uncle, who was taken to Tunnel Hill prison camp and later executed there."
David Lee Mull (nephew of Romulus Mull)
Myra Mull Weaver (niece of Romulus Mull)
"My uncle, Romulus Mull, was one of the nine crew members. He was executed in the Japanese POW camp."
NARA World War II Army Enlistment Records - Thomas B. Fessenger
NARA World War II Army Enlistment Records - Anthony Kuhn
NARA World War II Army Enlistment Records - Lawson Stewart
NARA World War II Army Enlistment Records - Vincent Wasilevski
NARA World War II Army Enlistment Records - Roy E. Bixler
NARA World War II Army Enlistment Records - John J. Gillis Jr
NARA World War II Army Enlistment Records - Edward T. Constantin
NARA World War II Army Enlistment Records - Romulus F. Mull
USAF Serial Number Search Results - B-24D-20-CO Liberator Liberator 41-24186
Pete Johnson adds:
"Al’s information came from original Consolidated data. I actually have a copy of the Ft Worth mod line records that show C/N 981 as S/N 41-24186, and 41-24187 as C/N 982. It is quite feasible that the spars were swapped on the production line or even the whole aircraft was mis-identified when the serial numbers were applied. The only real indicator would be the data plate located in the cockpit on the center console somewhere."
Individual Aircraft Record Card (IARC) B-24D Liberator 41-24186
Missing Air Crew Report 1620 (MACR 1620) created January 5, 1944
Individual Deceased Personnel File (IDPF) - Roy E. Bixler
Nippon News "U. S. Unable to Endure Long War, States Captured American Flier" by arrangement with the Asahi March 18, 1944
Marion D. Unruh - Memorial Day Speech 1946
NARA World War II Prisoners of War Data File - Unruh Marion D. last report Oct 10, 1945
NARA World War II Prisoner of War Data File - Fessenger Thomas B. last report July 22, 1944
NARA World War II Prisoner of War Data File - Koebig Fredrick K. last report Mar 5, 1944
NARA World War II Prisoner of War Data File - Kuhn Anthony last report Mar 5, 1944
NARA World War II Prisoner of War Data File - Stewart Lawson last report Mar 5, 1944
NARA World War II Prisoner of War Date File - Wasilevski Vincent last report Mar 5, 1944
NARA World War II Prisoners of War Data File - Gillis John J. Jr. last report August 14, 1944
NARA World War II Prisoner of War Data File - Constantin Edward T. last report Mar 5, 1944
NARA World War II Prisoner of War Data File - Mull Romulus F. last report Mar 5, 1944
NARA World War II Prisoners of the Japanese Data Files - Unruh Marion D.
NARA World War II Prisoners of the Japanese Data Files - Fessenger Thomas B.
NARA World War II Prisoners of the Japanese Data Files - Koebig Fredrick K.
NARA World War II Prisoners of the Japanese Data Files - Kuhn Anthony
NARA World War II Prisoners of the Japanese Data Files - Stewart Lawson
NARA World War II Prisoners of the Japanese Data Files - Wasilevski Vincent
NARA World War II Prisoners of the Japanese Data Files - Gillis John J. Jr
NARA World War II Prisoners of the Japanese Data Files - Constantin Edward T
NARA World War II Prisoners of the Japanese Data Files - Mull Romulus F.
Deposition of John B. Kepchia, September 8, 1946 "And Sergeant Gillis, from either Chicago or New York, who died about November 1944"
The Story Of The Fifth Bombardment Group (Heavy) (1946) pages 39 (Unruh photo), 56 (rescue photo)
(Page 39) "Two commanders of the 5th Group Col. Allen left and Col. Unruh, right, pose together on Espiritu Santo"
(Page 56) Colonel Unruh Shot Down - December 30: In a maximum 5th Group effort Liberators of the 72nd and 394th Squadrons from Munda bombed Rabaul. Approximately 60 to 70 enemy fighters intercepted our formation. Despite two dozen friendly fighters who were covering the strike, nearly every Liberator in the formation was credited with downing one or more Zekes.
On this day the group suffered a terrible loss Colonel Unruh and crew were shot down. The next day search planes reported sighting eight of the missing men, including Colonel Unruh, on the east beach of New Ireland. Emergency rations were dropped. However a successful rescue was never effected.
When this news arrived in the group, morale slumped, Colonel Unruh had endeared himself to all his men. A deathly quite hung over the New Year's celebration: and newcomers to the group, a year later, heard all about the wonderful leader, officer and man that Colonel Unruh represented to the men of the 5th Bomb Group. On December 31, 1944 Lt. Col. Joseph E. Reddoch assumed command of the group."
PNG Museum Aircraft Status Card - B-24D Liberator 41-24186
Bomber Barons 5th Bombardment Group Heavy (1982) page 41
"On 10 August 1943 Col. Marion Unruh took command of the 5th Bomb Group. Col. Unruh and his ten-men crew led 31st Squadron and other 5th Bomb Group planes in an attack on Rabaul on 30 December 1943. Over New Ireland Island, the Colonel's plane, The Pretty Prairie Special, was hit by Japanese Zeros and crashed into the water [sic]. Two crew men were never seen again. Natives in dugout canoes brought nine of the crew to shore on the southeast coast of New Ireland. Eventually, the Japanese captured the nine. Several of the men died of disease in Japanese prison camps. The rest were executed. Only Col. Unruh survived, spending the remainder of the war in a Japanese prison camp. Col. Joseph Reddoch took command of the 5th Bomb Group on 31 December 1943."
The Siege of Rabaul (1996) by Henry Sakaida page 93-96 (Rabaul's Military Prisoners - Unruh, Fessenger, )
Scootin' Thunder (2006) pages 62 (August 14, 1943 mission), 172-173, 201 (epilogue)
Courage Before Every Danger, Honor Before All Men (2010) pages 196-198 (Dec 30, 1943), 390 (footnote), 411 (Pretty Prairie Special), 415 (Unruh)
Target: Rabaul (2013) pages 288-289, 318-319, 327, 384 (index)
American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - Roy E. Bixler
FindAGrave - SSgt Roy E Bixler (tablets of the missing photo)
FindAGrave - Roy E Bixler (memorial marker)
American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - Albert Schaffran
FindAGrave - SSgt Albert Schaffran (tablets of the missing photo)
American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - Thomas B. Fessenger
FindAGrave - 1LT Thomas Bruce Fessenger (photo, tablets of the missing photo)
FindAGrave - Virtual Cemetery created by PacificWrecks.com - B-24D "Pretty Prairie Special" 41-24186
FindAGrave - Marion D. Unruh (photo, grave photo)
FindAGrave - Frederick K Koebig (group burial photo)
FindAGrave - Anthony Kuhn (photo, group burial photo)
FindAGrave - Lawson Stewart (photo, group burial photo)
FindAGrave - Vincent Wasilevski (group burial photo)
FindAGrave - Sgt John J Gillis, Jr (grave photo)
FindAGrave - SSGT Edward Thomas Constantin (grave photo)
FindAGrave - Sgt Edward T. Constantin (photo, memorial marker photo)
FindAGrave - Sgt Romulus F. Mull (memorial marker photo)
Ancestry - Frederick K Koebig - Military Page (photos)
The Siege of Rabaul (1996) by Henry Sakaida pages 19 (footnote 12 - Tunnel Hill Massacre), 93 (Rabaul's Military Prisoners - Constantin), 94 (Rabaul's Military Prisoners - Koebig, Kuhn), 95 (Rabaul's Military Prisoners - Mull), 96 (Rabaul's Military Prisoners - Wasilevski, Stewart)
Courage Before Every Danger Honor Honor Before All Men (2010) by Joanne Pfannenstiel Emerick pages 181 (damaged B-24 photo), 196-197 (photographing survivors), 207-209 (POWs Unruh)
5th Bombardment Group Association "Expedition to New Ireland: Solving a B-24 Mystery" by Donna Esposito September 21, 2018
Thanks to Jesse Unruh, Dale Anderson, Joseph Ugalde and Paige Fontaine, David Lee Mull, Myra Mull Weaver, Rodney Pearce, Robert Rawlinson, Pete Johnson and Donna Esposito for additional information
MIA / POW
December 30, 1943
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