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  G4M1 Model 11 Betty Manufacture Number 2656 Tail 323
IJN
705 Kōkūtai

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IJN 1943

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Rust In Peace 1975

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Pacific War Images 1984

Click For EnlargmentEncyclopedia Japonica
1980

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Phil Bradley 1997

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Justin Taylan 2000

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Yamamoto Museum 2001

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Jessie Owens 2002

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Bougainville Tours 2015

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New Dawn FM 2015

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J. Taylan April 18, 2018

Pilot  Flight Warrant Officer Takeo Kotani (KIA)
Co-Pilot  Chief Flight Seaman Akiharu Ozaki (KIA)
Engineer  Flight Petty Officer Haruo Ueda (KIA)
Front Gunner / Observer  Flight Petty Officer Minoru Tanaka (KIA)
Radio  Flight Petty Officer Nobuo Hara (KIA)
Assistant Radio / Top gunner  Chief Flight Seaman Mitsuo Ueno (KIA)
Tail Gunner  Chief Flight Seaman Harumasa Kobayashi (KIA)
Passenger
  Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Commander in Chief Combined Fleet (KIA)
Passenger  Rear Admiral Rokurou Takata, Chief Surgeon Combined Fleet (KIA)
Passenger  Cdr Kurio Toibana, Staff Officer (KIA)
Passenger
 Cdr Noburu Fukusaki, Yamamoto Aide
(KIA)
Crashed  April 18, 1943 at 8:00am


Aircraft History
Built by Mitsubishi No. 3 Works at Nagoya during March 1943. Delivered to the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) as G4M1 Model 11 Type 1 Attack Bomber manufacture number 2656.

Wartime History
Assigned to the 705 Kōkūtai with tail code T1-323, later changed to 323. During March or April 1943, departed Japan flying southward via Truk before arriving at Vunakanau Airfield near Rabaul.

This bomber was painted with standard green upper surfaces and gray lower surfaces. The upper nose and each upper engine cowling was planted black. The leading edge of the inner wings had a yellow identification stripe. The fuselage Hinomaru was outlined with a white square. Tail code 323 was painted in white on both sides of the tail. The upper tip of the tail was also painted white.

"Yamamoto Mission"
At the conclusion of Operation I-Go, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Commander in Chief of the Combined Japanese Fleet and his senior staff planned an inspection tour of forward airfields and bases in the Shortlands and southern Bougainville. The purpose of this visit was to boost moral after the Japanese losses on Guadalcanal and thank the Japanese Army for cooperation.

Knowledge of his flight was gleamed from a coded Japanese message sent on April 13, 1943 which American intelligence intercepted and had broken their Naval code. Decoded, the message outlined Yamamoto's itinerary and timetable. According to the intercept, Yamamoto would depart "RR" Rabaul at 0600 in a medium attack plane [G4M1 Betty] and land at "RXZ" Ballale Airfield at 0800. Then, proceed by subchaser to "RXE" Shortland at 0840, then depart at 0945 aboard the same subchaser and return to Ballale at 1030, then depart at 1100 aboard G4M1 Betty and arrive at Buin Airfield (Kahili) at 1110. Finally at 1400 depart "RXP" Buin Airfield (Kahili) by G4M1 Betty and arrive back at Rabaul at 1540. All the times were in the Tokyo time zone used by the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN). Local time was +1 hour ahead at Rabaul and +2 hours in the north Solomons.

A secret plan was made to to intercept and shoot down the bombers. Eighteen P-38 Lightings from the 347th Fighter Group and 18th Fighter Group would fly 435 miles over the open sea, the longest intercept mission by land based aircraft during World War II.

Mission History
On April 18, 1943 before dawn took off from Vunakanau Airfield near Rabaul under the command of Flight Warrant Officer Takeo Kotani along with G4M1 Betty Tail 326. Both bombers flew eastward then landed at Lakunai Airfield to pick up high ranking passengers including Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto.

On the ground at Lakunai Airfield, four passengers boarded this aircraft including: Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Rear Admiral Rokurou Takata, Cdr Kurio Toibana and Noburu Fukusaki plus their baggage. Five passengers boarded G4M1 Betty Tail 326 including: Vice-Admiral Matome Ugaki, Captain Motoharu Kitamura, Rinji Tomoro, Kaoru Imananka and Suteji Muroi.

At 6:10am both bombers took off from Lakunai Airfield escorted by six A6M Zeros of the 204 Kōkūtai and the formation departed on schedule and proceeded as planned southeast and was scheduled to land at Ballale Airfield at 8:00am.

The weather was described as fine with intermittent cumulus clouds. During the flight, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto who sat in the aircraft commander's seat behind the two pilots.

Meanwhile, P-38 Lightnings of the 339th Fighter Squadron took off from Fighter 2 (Kukum) on Guadalcanal as part of Operation Peacock the top secret "Yamamoto Mission" to intercept and shoot down the Admiral's bomber. Each P-38 had two auxiliary fuel tanks for a six hundred mile round trip flight.

South of of Empress Augusta Bay on Bougainville, they spotted the Japanese formation and the P-38s split up to engage the escorting A6M2 Zeros while the attack group engaged the bombers. Roughly a mile away, the P-38s were spotted by the Japanese formation, Yamamoto's Betty dove to low altitude as a defensive maneuver and was followed by the other Betty.

Over southern Bougainville, Yamamoto's bomber was attacked from the rear around 8:00am and crashed into the jungle on southern Bougainville. His bomber was claimed by P-38G "Miss Virginia" 43-2204 #147 piloted by Rex Barber and P-38G 43-2238 #122 piloted by Thomas G. Lanphier, Jr. who landed first and made the claim first and was officially awarded credit for the claim. Later research attributed the shoot down solely to Barber, who attacked the bomber from the rear.

The second bomber G4M1 Betty Tail 326 was attacked from the rear by three fighters: P-38G piloted by Holmes, P-38G piloted by Hine and P-38G "Miss Virginia" 43-2204 #147 piloted by Rex Barber and was shot down and ditched into the sea off Moila Point.

Credit for shooting down Yamamoto's Betty
After the mission, P-38 pilot Thomas Lanphier landed first and immediately claimed to have solely shot down Yamamoto's bomber. He was officially credited with the victory, before a post mission briefing was conducted or other pilots interviewed.

During the war, the news of the shoot down was suppressed in the United States, so as not to reveal that Japanese codes had been broken. Postwar research confirmed that Rex Barber actually shot down Yamamoto alone. This long standing controversy spawned a series of inquiries by several USAF credit review boards and the "Second Yamamoto Mission Association (SYMA)" to study the mission. But, officially, the USAF never changed the victory credit. Yet, Rex Barber is understood to be the sole pilot who shot down Yamamoto's Betty. This position was supported by the Second Yamamoto Mission Association, observations of the sole surviving Zero pilot, and even a letter Lanphier wrote to General Condon (claiming he shot down a bomber over the sea) and evidence from the bomber wreckage.

Search
After the crash, Japanese Army personnel under the command of Lt. Tsuyoshi Hamasuna at Aku observed smoke rising from the jungle.  At first, they believed an American aircraft had crashed. Immediately, Lt. Hamasuna led a group of twelve into the jungle. The next day, his patrol reached the crash site and identified it as Yamamoto's aircraft.

Recovery of Remains
Next, a Japanese Navy patrol was sent to the crash site to recover the remains of Admiral Yamamoto and the crew. Many English published accounts and references claim Yamamoto died in his seat, from a bullet wound to his chest. This is an imagined myth about how the Admiral died and is not supported by firsthand Japanese accounts. The Japanese eyewitnesses to Yamamoto's body reported few visible wounds and resulted in speculation he might have survived the initial crash and died hours later from internal injuries.

Yamamoto's remains were transported from the crash site to the coast to the mouth of the Wamai River on the southern coast of Bougainville. His remains were placed aboard Minesweeper W-15 and an initial autopsy was conducted. Afterwards, the remains of the crew were transported to Buin (Kangua) then to the 1st Base Command at Buin. On April 20, 1943 a full autopsy was preformed on Yamamoto's body by LtCdr Tabuchi Jisaburo, Chief Medical Officer.

On April 21, 1943 Yamamoto's body was dressed in his uniform and placed into a cremation pit, doused with petrol and cremated by Cdr Watanabe. The remains of the rest of crew and passengers were cremated in two nearby burial pits. After his cremation, some of Yamamoto's remains were buried at an unmarked grave at Buin.

On April 22, 1943 the remainder of Yamamoto's remains were transported to Buin Airfield (Kahili) and loaded aboard another G4M1 Betty and flown back to Lakunai Airfield and were placed overnight the Third Fleet headquarters. On April 23, 1943 the ashes were loaded aboard two G4M1 Betty bombers and departed Lakunai Airfield bound for Eten Airfield (Takeshima) at 1:45pm. Next, transfered aboard Battleship Musashi at Truk Lagoon and transported to Tokyo arriving May 3, 1943.

In Japan, news of Yamamoto's death was officially reported to the Japanese press as "having died in combat aboard an aircraft". On June 5, 1943 Yamamoto received a state funeral in Tokyo and his ashes were buried at Tama Cemetery with a portion given to his wife and buried at his family shrine in Nagaoka.

Memorials
During the war, at the Betty bomber crash site the Japanese built a shrine at the crash site. At the Yamamoto cremation site at Buin, two papayas were planted and a stone with his name caved into it atop.

In the 1960s, a Japanese delegation visited the crash site and placed a memorial plaque on the admiral's seat that read "Last place of Admiral Yamamoto". In the early 1970s, when the commander's seat was removed, the plaque was left at the crash site. The plaque was last documented in 2002 and was missing since 2004.

Since the war, Japanese visitors often leave small wooden sticks with prayers or messages at the crash site.

Wreckage
The crash site is located in a jungle covered area of southern Bougainville inland from Moila Point. As the bomber impacted the trees, it was torn into pieces before crashing into the ground and catching fire. During the crash, both wings and engines broke off and nose and center section was destroyed. The tail section broke off and landed relatively intact with both horizontal stabilizers broken off.

On April 19, 1943 the Japanese located the crash site and recovered the remains of the crew and passengers. Later, the Japanese established a monument to honor the dead.

Postwar and during the colonial era, visitors to the crash site removed pieces of wreckage and smaller souvenirs. All of the bomber's armaments and instruments were removed by prior visitors. The number "323" was cut from the tail, whereabouts today are unknown.

In the late 1960s, the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) 183rd Reconnaissance Flight, Pacific Island Regiment, based at Lae removed many smaller items including both of the control yokes (one cut at the upper stick with one rubber hand grip the other cut at the lower stick), and stenciled manufacture number 2656. Photographs of these items appear in Rust In Peace by Bruce Adams.

Sometime in the early 1970s, the fuselage door, outer wing panel and commander's seat where Yamamoto sat during the flight. The upper portion of the seat was penetrated by piece of shrapnel, consistent with the fatal back wounded reported in Yamamoto's autopsy.

Today, The crash site is located a few kilometers off the Panguna-Buin road near Aku. A pathway is maintained to allow visitors to access the site and requires an hour walk from the main road.

Richard Rudd recalls visiting the site in October 1968:
"While on an aerial mapping project, based out of Buin in October 1968 and the 'kiaps' at the time, (Australians), whilst imbibing and in conversation at the Buin Club, mentioned that a couple of weeks prior to our arrival, they had escorted a group of Japanese, complete with maps and WWII drawings to try and relocate the crash site. Which they did. We asked if it would be possible to be guided there again and when their time permitted, we drove up the coast/ inland track, getting permissions from various villages, until we quit the road and hiked off into the jungle for an hour or so. First sight was a wing with Hinomaru leaning against a forest tree, a flap? and then the bulk of the rear fuselage and engines. Much forward was all crushed and burnt and the Admirals seat by the rear door. In the jungle quiet, it was a sad scene to contemplate. Author Terry Gynne-Jones did a comprehensive article, with excellent color pictures in GEO magazine in the late 1970s."

In 1972 and 1988, Charles Darby conducted a "forensic analysis" at the crash site on two occasions. His first visit was during 1972 and he returned to conduct a more thorough investigation in August 1988 for the "Second Yamamoto Mission Association (SYMA)" a group of researchers attempting to study the the shoot down. His research findings included photographic documentation and that all shrapnel and bullet holes on the wreckage were caused by bullets traveling forward, indicating the bomber was attacked fro the rear as described by Rex Barber. Photographs from his visit appear in his book Pacific Aircraft Wrecks... And Where To Find Them. Also, he provided evidence to the U. S. Air Force (USAF) as part of the Air Force Board for Correction of Military Records testimony of Dr. Charles Darby, October 17-18, 1991 (AFBMR Docket: 91-02347). His conclusion was "There was no evidence on any remaining wreckage of an attack from the bomber's starboard beam as related in all of Lanphier's accounts."

During the "Bougainville Crisis" between 1988-1998, the crash site was not visited by outsiders but survived the conflict. In September 1999, Peace Monitoring Group (PMG) member Josh Mcdade visited the crash site and was given a notice from the Yamamoto Crash Site Landowner Association welcoming visitors and establishing an access fee of 10 Kina, in 2002, increased to 25 Kina.

To the present day, visitors occasionally visit the crash site in accordance with the landowners rules and fees. The local community closely guards the site to prevent the removal of any souvenirs by visitors.

For five years between 2010–2015, the crash site was closed to visitors due to a land dispute. The site reopened for visitors in May 2015.

In May 2015, the crash site officially re-opened for tourists, including a visit by Japanese ambassador to Papua New Guinea, Hiroharu Iwasaki with Deputy Director of National Planning.

On July 21, 2015 a gold tooth was discovered at the crash site by Anderson Giles prompting further investigation as to the possibility of it belonging to Yamamoto. This visit was funded Chicago entrepreneur and philanthropist Richard Portillo to commemorate U. S. Marine Corps veteran William “Bill” Faulkner who served on Bougainville.

Display
Over the years, wreckage and artifacts from the crash site has been recovered and are displayed in Papua New Guinea, Japan and Australia.

The fuselage door, outer wing panel and commander's seat were displayed at The Air Museum of Papua New Guinea during the early 1970s until it closed in the late 1970s. Afterwards, all three items were transferred to the PNG Museum and displayed in the indoor gallery. In the 1990s, the outer wing panel and commander's seat were placed on permanent loan to the Isoroku Yamamoto Memorial Hall & Museum. The fuselage door remains with the PNG Museum.

One control yoke was donated by Lt. Col Tom Guivarra, Australian Army Aviation Corps to the MacArthur Memorial in Brisbane. The control yoke is displayed in a glass case with the caption "Betty Bomber Control Column of the Betty bomber carrying Admiral Isoruko Yamamoto when he was shot down by American P-39s Lightnings near Moila Point, Bougainville on April 18, 1943. Kindly donated by Lieutenant Colonel Tom Guivarra, Australian Army Aviation Corps."

References
Air'Tell Research Report "G4M Serial Numbers" by Jim Long
Kodochosho, 705 Kōkūtai, April 18, 1943
13th Fighter Command "Fighter Interception Report" April 18, 1943

USAF Historical Study No. 85 USAF Credits For The Destruction of Enemy Aircraft, World War II [PDF] Barber Rex T. page 17 (PDF page 22), Lanphier Thomas G Jr. page 111 (PDF page 118), 70 FTR SQ page 365 (PDF page 569), 339 FTR SQ 608 (PDF page 612)
Admiral Jinichi Kusaka (1958) part 5 Fleet Admiral Yamamoto
Japanese Information Clearinghouse Bulletin (1983) Issue 1 18 April The Admiral's Last Flight 1943–1983

Yamamoto Autopsy (1971) details the crash site, remains recovery and autopsy
Rust In Peace (1975) page 201-207
After The Battle Issue 8 pages 50-53 includes account of the 1968 visit to the site by a Japanese photographer and 1969 visit by Bruce Adams and Malcolm Lang, administrator at Buin plus photos by Bruce Adams (identical to those in Rust In Peace).
The Reluctant Admiral (1979) pages 374-378
Pacific Aircraft Wrecks... And Where To Find Them (1979) pages 34 (photos)
Air Force Board for Correction of Military Records testimony of Dr. Charles Darby, October 17-18, 1991 (AFBMR Docket: 91-02347) "There was no evidence on any remaining wreckage of an attack from the bomber's starboard beam as related in all of Lanphier's accounts."
Papua New Guinea Pacific War Images (1984)
Attack on Yamamoto (1990) page 102 (photos) 230-231
Fading Victory The Diary of Admiral Matome Ugaki 1941-1945 (1991) pages 222-223, 330-331, 350-360 plus footnotes
Pacific Air Combat WWII (1993) "A country boy from Niigata Prefecture" pages 32-35
Ballale Naval Engineering Group (1994) part 7, section 4 The Fleet Admiral shot down
Hostages To Freedom The Fall of Rabaul (1995) page 177, 179, 184
P-38 Lightning Aces of the Pacific and CBI (1997) chapter 2 "The Yamamoto Mission" pages 14-17
Last Flight Of Yamamoto (1999) by Jack Fellows
Yamamoto Crash Site Landowner Association (1999, 2002)
Osprey Combat Aircraft 22 Mitsubishi Type 1 Rikko 'Betty' Units of WWII (2001) by Osamu Tagaya page 52 (profile 12), 70-71, 107, 112 (index)
13th Fighter Command in World War II (2004) chapter 8 Yamamoto Mission by Jim Lansdale pages 137 -162, 320 (profile)
USNI Blog "The Solomons Campaign: Operation Vengeance – The Shootdown Of Yamamoto" (2009)
Fortress Rabaul (2010) pages 342-343
Aviation History Magazine "Death by P-38" (2012) by Don Hollway
Killing a Peacock: A Case Study of the Targeted Killing of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto (2015) by Maj Adonis C. Arvanitakis
ABC "Japanese ambassador to PNG HE Hiroharu Iwasaki with Deputy Director of National Planning at the Yamamoto crash site" (May 12, 2015) by Sam Bolitho
Military History Magazine "Yamamoto Crash Site Reopens to Visitors" November 2015 page 12
Chicago Tribune "Does Chicago hot dog king have WWII Japanese admiral's gold tooth?" by Ted Gregory September 18, 2016
Japan Times "Chicago hot dog czar may have Japanese World War II admirals’s gold tooth" September 21, 2016
World War II Magazine "Appraising An Unexpected discovery" Jan/Feb 2017 Vol. 31 Issue 5, p12

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Last Updated
October 30, 2018

 

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